Soy phytoestrogens: hormonal activity and impact on the reproductive system
Keywords:phytoestrogens, soy, menopause, reproductive system
AbstractPhytoestrogens (PhE) are contained in soy and some other plants; they are structurally similar to estrogens. PhE are used for substitution therapy in the menopause. However, some recent reviews concluded that no satisfactory evidence has been provided in favor of PhE efficiency against menopausal symptoms compared to placebo. Soy is used as an ingredient of infant food and other foodstuff as well as cattle fodder, so that residual PhE and their degradation products, e.g. equol, having estrogenic activity, can remain in meats. Soy protein is used in the food industry. Disorders of the reproductive system in humans under the influence of PhE are regarded to be rare and mild. There were single reports on altered gender-related behavior in children and feminization associated with soy consumption. In animals, the excessive PhE intake leads to derangements of fertility, sexual development and behavior. PhE are called modulators or disruptors of the endocrine system. There are no reasons to assume that benefits from such modulation would prevail in all soy consumers. Feminizing effects may be inconspicuous but statistically detectable in large populations.
Taku K, Melby MK, Kronenberg F, Kurzer MS, Messina M. Extracted or synthesized soybean isoflavones reduce menopausal hot flash frequency and severity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Menopause. 2012;19(7):776–790. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3182410159.
Gold EB, Leung K, Crawford SL, Huang MH, Waetjen LE, Greendale GA. Phytoestrogen and fiber intakes in relation to incident vasomotor symptoms: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2013;20(3):305–314. doi:10.1097/GME.0b013e31826d2f43.
Gencel VB, Benjamin MM, Bahou SN, Khalil RA. Vascular effects of phytoestrogens and alternative menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2012;12(2):149–174. doi:10.2174/138955712798995020.
Lethaby AE, Brown J, Marjoribanks J, Kronenberg F, Roberts H, Eden J. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD001395. Published 2007 Oct 17. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001395.pub3.
Guidozzi F, Alperstein A, Bagratee JS, et al. South African Menopause Society revised consensus position statement on menopausal hormone therapy, 2014. S Afr Med J. 2014;104(8):537–543. Published 2014 Jun 19. doi:10.7196/samj.8423.
Cheema D, Coomarasamy A, El-Toukhy T. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a structured evidence-based review. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276(5):463–469. doi:10.1007/s00404-007-0390-9.
Ye CF, Pan YM, Zhou H. Regulation of vitamin D receptor and Genistein on bone metabolism in mouse osteoblasts and the molecular mechanism of osteoporosis. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2018;32(3):497–505.
Arcoraci V, Atteritano M, Squadrito F, et al. Antiosteoporotic Activity of Genistein Aglycone in Postmenopausal Women: Evidence from a Post-Hoc Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2017;9(2):179. Published 2017 Feb 22. doi:10.3390/nu9020179.
This P, de Cremoux P, Leclercq G, Jacquot Y. A critical view of the effects of phytoestrogens on hot flashes and breast cancer risk. Maturitas. 2011;70(3):222–226. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.07.001.
Haimov-Kochman R, Brzezinski A, Hochner-Celnikier D. Herbal remedies for menopausal symptoms: are we cautious enough? Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008;13(2):133–137. doi:10.1080/13625180801920131.
Leclercq G, de Cremoux P, This P, Jacquot Y. Lack of sufficient information on the specificity and selectivity of commercial phytoestrogens preparations for therapeutic purposes. Maturitas. 2011;68(1):56–64. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.10.003.
Van Duursen MBM. Modulation of estrogen synthesis and metabolism by phytoestrogens in vitro and the implications for women's health. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2017;6(6):772–794. Published 2017 Sep 8. doi:10.1039/c7tx00184c.
Czuczwar P, Paszkowski T, Lisiecki M, Woźniak S, Stępniak A. The safety and tolerance of phytotherapies in menopausal medicine – a review of the literature. Prz Menopauzalny. 2017;16(1):8–11. doi:10.5114/pm.2017.67365.
Jacobsen BK, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Knutsen SF, Fan J, Oda K, Fraser GE. Soy isoflavone intake and the likelihood of ever becoming a mother: the Adventist Health Study-2. Int J Womens Health. 2014;6:377–384. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S57137.
Jefferson WN, Williams CJ. Circulating levels of genistein in the neonate, apart from dose and route, predict future adverse female reproductive outcomes. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31(3):272–279. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.10.001.
Seliukova NIu, Karpenko NO, Korenieva IeM, et al. The impact of male phytoestrogenization on the somato-sexual development and fertility of the offsprings in rats. Fiziol Zh. 2014;60(2):82–87. (in Ukrainian).
Latendresse JR, Bucci TJ, Olson G, et al. Genistein and ethinyl estradiol dietary exposure in multigenerational and chronic studies induce similar proliferative lesions in mammary gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28(3):342–353. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.04.006.
Hashem NM, Abo-Elsoud MA, Nour El-Din ANM, Kamel KI, Hassan GA. Prolonged exposure of dietary phytoestrogens on semen characteristics and reproductive performance of rabbit bucks. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2018;64:84–92. doi:10.1016/j.domaniend.2018.03.003.
Dean M, Murphy BT, Burdette JE. Phytosteroids beyond estrogens: Regulators of reproductive and endocrine function in natural products. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;442:98–105. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2016.12.013.
Messina M. Soybean isoflavone exposure does not have feminizing effects on men: a critical examination of the clinical evidence. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(7):2095–2104. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.03.002.
Orekhov AN, Sobenin IA, Revin VV, Bobryshev YV. Development of Antiatherosclerotic Drugs on the basis of Natural Products Using Cell Model Approach. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:463797. doi:10.1155/2015/463797.
Lipworth L, Adami HO, Trichopoulos D, Carlström K, Mantzoros C. Serum steroid hormone levels, sex hormone-binding globulin, and body mass index in the etiology of postmenopausal breast cancer. Epidemiology. 1996;7(1):96–100. doi:10.1097/00001648-199601000-00017.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 S.V. Jargin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.