Possibilities of preoperative and intraoperative methods for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules
Keywords:thyroid nodules, fine needle aspiration biopsy, core needle biopsy, molecular tests, express histological studies, intraoperative cytology, overview
AbstractIn case of thyroid nodules, it is important to determine the nature of the pathological process in a timely manner, since the algorithm for treating the patient depends on this. The main and effective method of preoperative diagnosis is fine needle aspiration biopsy. However, at this stage, it is not always possible to obtain informative results and also to avoid unnecessary surgeries or to clearly identify/exclude the malignant process. Needle biopsy, which is suggested as an alternative to repeated fine needle aspiration biopsy, helps to reduce the proportion of non-informative results in a number of cases. Another approach that is widely used to improve preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules is additional studies with specific molecular markers and tests. To identify benign thyroid lesions, the gene expression classifier is most often used, and to detect malignant process — a test for the presence of mutations and gene rearrangements. Since even such a comprehensive approach does not always make it possible to distinguish benign and malignant tumors, intraoperative express histological studies remain relevant. In this case, the parallel implementation of express histological studies and intraoperative cytology increases the effectiveness of intraoperative diagnosis. Thus, the spectrum of the methods presented is broad, therefore, in this review, the features of each approach, including effectiveness, possibilities and limitations, were examined, and also it is shown, in which situations it is expedient to carry out certain studies or their set.
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