Hypogonadism induced by the administration of anabolic steroids (literature review)

Authors

  • Ye.V. Luchitsky ДУ «Інститут ендокринології та обміну речовин ім. В.П. Комісаренка НАМН України», м. Київ, Україна

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.15.3.2019.172112

Keywords:

hypogonadism, androgens, anabolics, pathoge­nesis

Abstract

The use of androgens and/or anabolic steroids is common among professional athletes who use them to increase sports performance and bodybuilding, and among young men and adolescents who use them to improve their physical appearance. Some of them develop hypogonadism, since users of androgens and/or anabolic steroids take high doses of drugs, as well as combination and cyclicity of action of several synthetic drugs occur. The pathophysiology of hypogonadism induced by the use of androgenic or anabolic steroids is a combination of disorders at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and direct toxic effects on the testicles. However, such patients rarely seek medical help.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Garevik N, Strahm E, Garle ML, et al. Long term perturbation of endocrine parameters and cholesterol metabolism after discontinued abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Nov;127(3-5):295-300. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.08.005.

de Souza GL, Hallak J. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review. BJU Int. 2011 Dec;108(11):1860-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10131.x.

Coward RM, Rajanahally S, Kovac JR, Smith RP, Pastuszak AW, Lipshultz LI. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men. J Urol. 2013 Dec;190(6):2200-5. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.06.010.

Foss GL, Simpson SL. Oral methyltestosterone and jaundice. Br Med J. 1959 Jan 31;1(5117):259-63. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5117.259.

Moss JL, Crosnoe LE, Kim ED. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis. Fertil Steril. 2013 Jun;99(7):1814-20. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.04.003.

Kicman AT. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;154(3):502-21. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.165.

Parkinson AB, Evans NA. Anabolic androgenic steroids: a survey of 500 users. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Apr;38(4):644-51. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000210194.56834.5d.

Evans NA. Current concepts in anabolic–androgenic steroids. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Mar;32(2):534-42. doi: 10.1177/0363546503262202.

Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use. Vol I: Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan; 2013.

Kanayama G, Brower KJ, Wood RI, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder. Addiction. 2009 Dec;104(12):1966-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02734.x.

Cohen J, Collins R, Darkes J, Gwartney D. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult nonmedical anabolic steroid users in the United States. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Oct 11;4:12. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-12.

Rahnema CD, Lipshultz LI, Crosnoe LE, Kovac JR, Kim ED. Anabolic steroid–induced hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment. Fertil Steril. 2014 May;101(5):1271-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.02.002.

Ip EJ, Barnett MJ, Tenerowicz MJ, Perry PJ. The Anabolic 500 survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training. Pharmacotherapy. 2011 Aug;31(8):757-66. doi: 10.1592/phco.31.8.757.

Pirola I, Cappelli C, Delbarba A, et al. Anabolic steroids purchased on the Internet as a cause of prolonged hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Fertil Steril. 2010 Nov;94(6):2331.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.03.042.

Karavalos S, Reynolds M, Panagiotopoulou N, McEleny K, Scally M, Quinton R. Male central hypogonadism secondary to exogenous androgens: a review of the drugs and protocols highlighted by the online community of users for prevention and/or mitigation of adverse effects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 May;82(5):624-32. doi: 10.1111/cen.12641.

Cavalcanti GA, Leal FD, Garrido BC, Padilha MC, de Aquino Neto FR. Detection of designer steroid methylstenbolone in ‘‘nutritional supplement’’ using gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: elucidation of its urinary metabolites. Steroids. 2013 Feb;78(2):228-33. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2012.11.009.

Cordaro FG, Lombardo S, Cosentino M. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e247-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01263.x.

Geyer H, Parr MK, Marec U, Reinhart U, Schrader Y, Schänzer W. Analysis of nonhormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids – results of an international study. Int J Sports Med. 2004 Feb;25(2):124-9. doi: 10.1055/s-2004-819955.

Cohen PA. Assessing supplement safety – the FDA’s controversial proposal. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 2;366(5):389-91. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1113325.

Tan RS, Scally MC. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism – toward a unified hypothesis of anabolic steroid action. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Jun;72(6):723-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.12.042.

Fronczak CM, Kim ED, Barqawi AB. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility. J Androl. 2012 Jul-Aug;33(4):515-28. doi: 10.2164/jandrol.110.011874.

Casavant MJ, Blake K, Griffith J, Yates A, Copley LM. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;54(4):677-90, x. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2007.04.001.

Jarow JP, Lipshultz LI. Anabolic steroid–induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Am J Sports Med. 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):429-31. doi: 10.1177/036354659001800417.

New clinical protocols. 2018. Available from: http://guidelines.moz.gov.ua/documents/363

Karavolos S, Stewart J, Evbuomwan I, et al. Assessment of the infertile male. The Obstetrics and Gynaecoljgist. 2013;15(1):1-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-4667.2012.00145.x.

Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med. 2004;34(8):513-54. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200434080-00003.

Turner TT, Jones CE, Howards SS, Ewing LL, Zegeye B, Gunsalus GL. On the Androgen Microenvironment of Maturing Spermatozoa. Endocrinology. 1984 Nov;115(5):1925-32. doi: 10.1210/endo-115-5-1925.

Moretti E, Collodel G, La Marca A, Piomboni P, Scapigliati G, Baccetti B. Structural sperm and aneuploidies studies in a case of spermatogenesis recovery after the use of androgenic anabolic steroids. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007 May;24(5):195-8. doi: 10.1007/s10815-005-9002-4.

van Breda E, Keizer HA, Kuipers H, Wolffenbuttel BH. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction: a case study. Int J Sports Med. 2003 Apr;24(3):195-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-39089.

Gazvani MR, Buckett W, Luckas MJ, Aird IA, Hipkin LJ, Lewis-Jones DI. Conservative management of azoospermia following steroid abuse. Hum Reprod. 1997 Aug;12(8):1706-8. doi: 10.1093/humrep/12.8.1706.

Perry PJ, Lund BC, Deninger MJ, Kutscher EC, Schneider J. Anabolic steroid use in weightlifters and bodybuilders: an internet survey of drug utilization. Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Sep;15(5):326-30.

Graham MR, Davies B, Grace FM, Kicman A, Baker JS. Anabolic steroid use: patterns of use and detection of doping. Sports Med. 2008;38(6):505-25. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200838060-00005.

Perry HM, Wright D, Littlepage BN. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use. Br J Sports Med. 1992 Dec;26(4):259-61. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.26.4.259.

Kim ED, Crosnoe L, Bar-Chama N, Khera M, Lipshultz LI. The treatment of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Fertil Steril. 2013 Mar 1;99(3):718-24. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.10.052.

Boettcher M, Kosmehl T, Braunbeck T. Low-dose effects and biphasic effect profiles: is trenbolone a genotoxicant? Mutat Res. 2011 Aug 16;723(2):152-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.04.012.

Shokri S, Aitken RJ, Abdolvahhabi M, et al. Exercise and supraphysiological dose of nandrolone decanoate increase apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010 Apr;106(4):324-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2009.00495.x.

Karila T, Hovatta O, Seppala T. Concomitant abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and human chorionic gonadotrophin impairs spermatogenesis in power athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2004 May;25(4):257-63. doi: 10.1055/s-2004-819936.

Chainy GB, Samantaray S, Samanta L. Testosterone-induced changes in testicular antioxidant system. Andrologia. 1997 Nov-Dec;29(6):343-9.

Published

2021-09-01

How to Cite

Luchitsky, Y. (2021). Hypogonadism induced by the administration of anabolic steroids (literature review). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), 15(3), 253–257. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.15.3.2019.172112

Issue

Section

Literature Review