Features of clinical manifestations and treatment of Schmidt’s syndrome
Keywords:Schmidt’s syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis, diagnosis, treatment
Background. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 is the most common. The development and course of Schmidt’s syndrome is of interest, which requires a comprehensive diagnosis due to the combination of several autoimmune endocrinopathies, and rational therapy. The purpose of this work was to analyze the features of clinical manifestations and treatment of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 using a specific example. Materials and methods. A clinical case of Schmidt’s syndrome in a 36-year-old female patient is presented for consideration. There were primary adrenal insufficiency with an autoimmune process to 21-hydroxylase and the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis with the development of hypothyroidism. Results. The clinical manifestations of the disease were mainly represented by syndromes of hypotension, general and muscle weakness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, dyspeptic disorders, aggravated by secondary viral infection, against the background of edematous syndrome. Additional examination revealed a significant increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone, renin, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, hypothyroxinemia, an increase in antibodies to 21-hydroxylase and thyroid peroxidase and a decrease in the thyroid volume with multiple linear inclusions, increased echogenicity. The analysis of the identified hormonal, metabolic and pathomorphological changes made it possible to establish the presence of Schmidt’s syndrome in this clinical case. The treatment with glucocorticoids was accompanied by adverse reactions, which led to repeated replacement of drugs. The choice was made in favor of сortef, the dose was carefully titrated under the control of cortisoluria. The administration of levothyroxine was accompanied by the achievement of euthyroidism. Conclusions. The symptoms of Schmidt’s syndrome with the simultaneous manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency of autoimmune origin and autoimmune thyroiditis with the development of hypothyroidism differed in terms of a mutually aggravating course. There were significant difficulties in the treatment of this polyglandular syndrome associated with the correction of hypocorticism due to poor tolerance of glucocorticoids, which required constant monitoring, continuous control of the hormonal and metabolic status.
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