Insulin resistance: metabolic and somatic changes in children
Keywords:insulin resistance, metabolic risk factors, children
Background. Insulin resistance is the major sign of etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and can precede its development for many years. Early identifying the beginning of insulin resistance in children is important to prevent diabetes mellitus in adult life. The purpose was to identify metabolic and somatic changes in children with insulin resistance. Material and methods. Out of 182 children of the general sample, who was estimated fasting plasma insulin and glucose, HOMA-IR, and glucose/insulin ratio, 2 groups were formed: group 1 — children with IR — 56 (30.8 %) and group 2 — 126 (69.2 %) children with normal insulin sensitivity. In children anthropometric data, lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C), blood pressure, leptin were determined. Results. From examined subjects 56 children were generally obese (BMI > 95th percentile), 71 children were abdominally obese (WC > 90th percentile), 55 children were with normal body mass (BMI < 90th percentile). Insulin resistance was identified in 21 (37.5 %) children with general obesity more rarely, than in 38 (39.4 %) children with abdominal obesity (p = .049) and in 7 (12.7 %) children with normal BMI (p = .003). In insulin-resistant children BMI, waist and hip circumference was larger than in children with normal insulin sensitivity. The lipid profile in children with different insulin sensitivity did not differ, but in insulin-resistant children an association of basal glucose with TG/HDL-C ratio (r = .53; p = .001), blood insulin with TG (r = .34; p = .018), and TG/HDL-C ratio (r = .54; p = .001) was estimated. The HOMA-IR significantly correlated with VLD-C (r = .40; p = .005), TG (r = .49; p = .001), TG/HDL-C ratio (r = .43; p = .002). The glucose/insulin ratio was in significant association with the TG/non-HDL-C ratio. The incidence of hypetension (> 95th percentile) diagnosis in insulin-resistant children was by 33.8 % higher (p = .001). Blood leptin concentration was 1.8 falled higher in insulin-resistant children and significantly correlates with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions. Insulin resistance is related to cardiometabolic risks, such as general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and leptin resistance, and is a screening biomarker for children and adolescents with an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases.
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