Anxiety and depression in women of reproductive age with thyroid disease




hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, anxiety, depression


Background. The problem of pathology of the affective sphere, especially anxiety and depressive disorders, at the pre­sent stage of development of society is especially relevant among general medical problems. In recent years, there has also been a patho­morphosis of mental disorders in various somatic and endocrine di­seases. A link between thyroid disease and mental disorders, inclu­ding autoimmune thyroiditis, has been found. Further research on this issue is important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of mental disorders in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis. Materials and methods. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in 176 women of reproductive age (18 to 44 years) with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroi­dism with autoimmune thyroiditis compared with healthy women. The exa­mination was conducted before the start of therapy for the underlying disease. Results. It was found that out of the 176 women surveyed, 37.5 % of them had anxiety syndrome, 13.6 % had depression, 10.8 % of women had comorbid anxiety disorder and depression, and 38.1 % of those surveyed had normal results. The group of women with autoimmune thyroiditis and subclinical hypothyroidism was dominated by clinically severe anxiety (40.9 %) and depression (15.1 %), the percentage of detected subclinical anxiety and depression was 7.6 % and 7.6 %, respectively, while the group of women with autoimmune thyroiditis and euthyroi­dism was dominated by subclinically expressed anxiety (37.1 %) and depression (8.6 %), and the percentage of clinically expressed anxiety and depression was 5.7 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Conclusions. Anxiety-depressive syndrome is 3.5 times more common in patients with thyroid diseases than in healthy women. There is a direct correlation of weak strength between the level of TSH in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and the number of points scored during the survey on both scales HADS-depression (r = 0.12, p < 0.05) and HADS-anxiety (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). There was a direct correlation of weak strength between the level of TPO Ab and the number of points scored during the survey in both scales HADS-depression (r = 0.17, p < 0.05) and HADS-anxiety (r = 0.19, p < 0.05).


Download data is not yet available.


Konnopka A, König H. Economic Burden of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pharmacoeconomics. 2020 Jan;38(1):25-37. doi:10.1007/s40273-019-00849-7.

Ströhle A, Gensichen J, Domschke K. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018 Sep 14;155(37):611-620. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0611.

Polishchuk OY, Tashchuk VK, Barchuk NI, Amelina TM, Hrechko SI, Trefanenko IV. Anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with arterial hypertension. Wiad Lek. 2021;74(3 cz 1):455-459.

COVID-19 Mental Disorders Collaborators. Global prevalence and burden of depressive and anxiety disorders in 204 countries and territories in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet. 2021 Nov 6;398(10312):1700-1712. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02143-7.

Andrieieva OG, Yanchenko VI, Vasylyk VS, Dyachenko PA, Muravskya LV. Anxiety-depressive syndrome in patients with damage to the central nervous system by herpes viruses. Reports of Vinnytsia National Medical University. 2021;25(1):57-61. doi:10.31393/reports-vnmedical-2021-25(1)-10. (in Ukrainian).

Triolo F, Belvederi Murri M, Calderón-Larrañaga A, et al. Bridging late-life depression and chronic somatic diseases: a network analysis. Transl Psychiatry. 2021 Oct 30;11(1):557. doi:10.1038/s41398-021-01686-z.

Tkachenko VI, Maksymets YaA, Vydyborets NV, Kovalenko OF. Analysis of the prevalence and morbidity of thyroid pathology among the population of Kyiv region and Ukraine for 2007–2017. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(3).272-277. doi:10.22141/2224-0721.14.3.2018.136426. (in Ukrainian).

Pankiv VI. Vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune thyroid disease: relationship and correction (literature review and clinical cases). Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2020;16(7):556-563. doi:10.22141/2224-0721.16.7.2020.219010. (in Ukrainian).

Kozhyna НM, Tovazhnyanska OL, Markova MV, Zelenska KO, Kauk OI. Features of primary hypothyroidism in forcibly displaced persons as a basis of formation cognitive and anxiety-depressive disorders. Problems of Endocrine Pathology. 2020;73(3):25-32. doi:10.21856/j-PEP.2020.3.03. (in Ukrainian).

Pollak TA, McCormack R, Peakman M, Nicholson TR, David AS. Prevalence of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor [corrected] antibodies in patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2014 Sep;44(12):2475-2487. doi:10.1017/S003329171300295X.

Davison K. Autoimmunity in psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2012 May;200(5):353-355. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.104471.

Voloshyn OI, Glubochenko OV, Pankiv IV, Glubochenko VG, Prysiazhniuk IV. Rheumatic manifestations of thyroid pathology. Literature review. Clinical Endocrinology and Endocrine Surgery. 2022;1(77):57-67. doi:10.30978/cees-2022-1-57.

Hoyer J, Van der Heiden C, Portman ME. Psychotherapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Psychiatric Annals. 2011;41(2):87-94. doi:10.3928/00485713-20110203-07.

Shoib S, Ahmad J, Wani MA, et al. Depression and anxiety among hyperthyroid female patients and impact of treatment. Middle East Current Psychiatry. 2021; 28:26. doi:10.1186/s43045-021-00107-7.

Simon NM, Blacker D, Korbly NB, et al. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in anxiety disorders revisited: new data and literature review. J Affect Disord. 2002;69(1-3):209-217. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00378-0.

Bunevicius R, Prange AJ Jr. Thyroid disease and mental disorders: cause and effect or only comorbidity? Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;23(4):363-368. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283387b50.

Bové KB, Watt T, Vogel A, et al. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre. Eur Thyroid J. 2014 Sep;3(3):173-178. doi:10.1159/000365211.

Ittermann T, Völzke H, Baumeister SE, Appel K, Grabe HJ. Diagnosed thyroid disorders are associated with depression and anxiety. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015 Sep;50(9):1417-1425. doi:10.1007/s00127-015-1043-0.

Demet MM, Ozmen B, Deveci A, Boyvada S, Adigüzel H, Aydemir O. Depression and anxiety in hyperthyroidism. Arch Med Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;33(6):552-556. doi:10.1016/s0188-4409(02)00410-1.

Radanović-Grgurić L, Filaković P, Barkić J, et al. Depression in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Eur J Psychiatry. 2003;17:133-144.

Yalcin MM, Altinova AE, Cavnar B, et al. Is thyroid autoimmunity itself associated with psychological well-being in euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis? Endocr J. 2017 Apr 29;64(4):425-429. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0418.

Constant EL, Adam S, Seron X, Bruyer R, Seghers A, Daumerie C. Hypothyroidism and major depression: a common executive dysfunction? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2006 Jul;28(5):790-807. doi:10.1080/13803390591000990.

Kong WM, Sheikh MH, Lumb PJ, et al. A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. Am J Med. 2002 Apr 1;112(5):348-54. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01022-7.

Gulseren S, Gulseren L, Hekimsoy Z, Cetinay P, Ozen C, Tokatlioglu B. Depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and disability in patients with overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Arch Med Res. 2006 Jan;37(1):133-139. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.05.008.

Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;62(6):617-627. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617.

Khan A, Plana-Ripoll O, Antonsen S, et al. Environmental pollution is associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders in the US and Denmark. PLoS Biol. 2019 Aug 20;17(8):e3000353. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000353.



How to Cite

Pasyechko, N., & Kulchinska, V. (2022). Anxiety and depression in women of reproductive age with thyroid disease. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), 18(3), 157–162.



Original Researches

Most read articles by the same author(s)