Biomarkers of iodine deficiency, methods of its prevention and treatment

Authors

  • O.V. Kaminsky State Institution “National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Hematology and Oncology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6692-2137

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.18.1.2022.1145

Keywords:

iodine deficiency, biomarkers, prevention, treatment

Abstract

The review article focuses on the issue of iodine deficiency, which is very common in the world and leads to a significant number of health problems, including mental, intellectual, thyroid, and non-thyroid in all age groups. Today, in most countries, the introduction of iodine prevention has resulted in more than 60 % of the population overcoming iodine deficiency disorders, but the only category of the population even in these countries that still has such a deficit is pregnant and breastfeeding women. At this time, Ukraine has failed programs to provide the population with sufficient iodine, national research on this problem has not been conducted for several decades, so since 2021, on the maps of iodine status, Ukraine is already listed as a “white spot”. Therefore, iodine prevention is becoming a problem for the population of our country, every resident who wants to be healthy and have healthy offspring, must do it yourself. The best way to overcome iodine deficiency pathology is the daily use of a combination of iodine, selenium in WHO recommended and vitamin D in individual doses, constantly throughout the year with periodic laboratory monitoring of TSH (a marker of thyroid function, including screening), thyroglobulin as an individual marker iodine deficiency, and vitamin D, a marker of wealth, which determines the state of the musculoskeletal and parathyroid systems. Several studies have shown that the use of excessive doses of iodine can increase the development of thyroid pathology, but not all of them have a perfect design that takes into account other factors of such pathology. Today in Ukraine, there is a drug that contains a combination of iodine (150 mcg) and selenium (75 mcg) for adults. This safe ratio in the recommended doses for people aged over 12 years is the most optimal for the prevention and treatment of iodine deficiency pathology and conditions, is well established, popular among physicians and patients. Its simultaneous and long-term use with vitamin D preparations in individual doses over the years with periodic monitoring of laboratory parameters and ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland allows achieving in most cases these medical goals and objectives.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Baczyk M, Ruchała M, Pisarek M, et al. Iodine prophylaxis in children population on the Wielkopolska Region area from year 1992 to 2005. Endokrynol Pol. 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):110-115. (in Polish).

World Health Organization (WHO). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 2nd ed. Geneva: WHO-press; 2001. 124 p.

Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS. Iodine-deficiency disorders. Lancet. 2008 Oct 4;372(9645):1251-1262. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61005-3.

Zimmermann MB. Salt iodization halves risk of thyrotoxicosis in Denmark. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 Nov;15(11):632-633. doi:10.1038/s41574-019-0261-z.

World Health Organization (WHO). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO-press; 2007. 108 p.

World Health Organization (WHO). Sustaining the elimination of iodine deficiency disorders: Resolution WHA58.24. In: World Health Organization (WHO). Fifty-eighth World Health Assembly: resolutions and decisions: annex. 2005, May 16-25; Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: WHO-press; 2005. 112-113 pp.

World Health Organization (WHO). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO-press; 2007. 108 p.

Andersson M, Karumbunathan V, Zimmermann MB. Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):744-750. doi:10.3945/jn.111.149393.

Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-389. doi:10.1089/thy.2016.0457.

World Health Organization (WHO); International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD); United Nations Children's Fund (‎UNICEF)‎. Indicators for assessing iodine deficiency disorders and their control through salt iodization. Geneva: WHO-press; 1994. 66 p.

Zimmermann MB, Aeberli I, Andersson M, et al. Thyroglobulin is a sensitive measure of both deficient and excess iodine intakes in children and indicates no adverse effects on thyroid function in the UIC range of 100-299 μg/L: a UNICEF/ICCIDD study group report. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar;98(3):1271-1280. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3952.

Smyth PPA. Iodine, Seaweed, and the Thyroid. Eur Thyroid J. 2021 Apr;10(2):101-108. doi:10.1159/000512971.

Published

2022-06-29

How to Cite

Kaminsky, O. (2022). Biomarkers of iodine deficiency, methods of its prevention and treatment. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), 18(1), 49–56. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.18.1.2022.1145

Issue

Section

Literature Review