Vitamin D level and indicators of carbohydrate metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome


  • T.L. Arkhypkina V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • V.A. Bondarenko V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • O.A. Goncharova Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • L.P. Lyubimovа V. Danilevsky Institute for Endocrine Pathology Problems of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine



polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D, insulin resistance, sex steroid-binding globulin


Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains an urgent problem of gynecological endocrinology, and its frequency is approximately 11–17 % among women of reproductive age and reaches 75 % in the structure of endocrine infertility. There is evidence that vitamin D impacts carbohydrate metabolism, and its insufficiency or deficiency increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels and indicators of carbohydrate metabolism in wo­men with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods. Sixty women aged from 19 to 26 years were examined: 30 women with a diagnosis of the classical phenotype of PCOS; 30 healthy women with normal menstrual and reproductive function. We stu­died the content of vitamin D, sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), HOMA-IR index, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio. Depending on the concentration of vitamin D, women were divided into subgroups: the first enrolled 22 patients with PCOS with vitamin D ≤ 30 ng/ml (average level 12.9 ± 0.2 ng/ml); the second included 8 patients with a level of vitamin D ≥ 30 ng/ml (31.4 ± 0.3 ng/ml); the third group consisted of 12 healthy women with vitamin D ≤ 30 ng/ml (24.2 ± 0.3 ng/ml); fourth group consisted of 18 healthy women with a level of vitamin D ≥ 30 ng/ml (35.6 ± 0.3 ng/ml). Results. It was found that in the basic group of PCOS patients, the average level of vitamin D (21.4 ± 0.4 ng/ml) was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to the group of healthy women (29.6 ± 0.3 ng/ml). In patients with PCOS, low concentrations of vitamin D were accompanied by hig­her levels of glucose (P < 0.001), IRI (P < 0.001), HOMA-IR index (P < 0.001), and a decreased level of SSBG (P < 0.001). A negative association of vitamin D with BMI (r = –0.399; P < 0.05), waist-hip ratio (r = –0.612; P < 0.001), IRI concentration (r = –0.502; P < 0.001), HOMA-IR index (r = –0.571; P < 0.001), the level of SSBG (r = –0.694; P < 0.001) was established. Conclusions. The results of the study demonstrate the role of abdominal obesity in the formation of vitamin D deficiency, which intensifies the carbohydrate metabolism disorders, increases hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and reduces the production of sex steroid-binding globulin in women with PCOS.


Download data is not yet available.


Damdinova LV, Leshchenko OYa. Polycystic ovary syndrome – 80 years of research and new directions in the study (literature review). Biulleten' VSNTs SO RAMN. 2016;15(111):181-185. doi:10.12737/23421. (in Russian).

Mohort TV, Velesevich EI, Yurenya EV, Shyshko VM, Tsinkevich AI. Polycystic ovary syndrome: what's new? (Based on an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline). Meditsinskie novosti. 2014;(12):16-21. (in Russian).

Marshall JC, Dunaif A. Should all women with PCOS be treated for insulin resistance? Fertil Steril. 2012;97(1):18-22. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.11.036.

Safi AT, Orazov MR, Kalinchenko SYu. Polycystic ovary syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Obstetrics and Gynaecology of St Petersburg. 2018;(2):55-61. (in Russian).

Lumme J, Sebert S, Pesonen P, et al. Vitamin D Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Population-Based Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2831. doi:10.3390/nu11112831.

Pankiv IV, Korytko OO. Vitamin D level, frequency of its insufficiency and deficiency in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(6):585-589. doi:10.22141/2224-0721.14.6.2018.146069. (in Ukrainian).

Niu YM, Wang YD, Jiang GB, et al. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta-analysis. Front Physiol. 2019;9:1902. doi:10.3389/fphys.2018.01902.

Liu E, Meigs JB, Pittas AG, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J Nutr. 2009;139(2):329-334. doi:10.3945/jn.108.093831.

Larsson S, Jones HA, Göransson O, Degerman E, Holm C. Parathyroid hormone induces adipocyte lipolysis via PKA-mediated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Cell Signal. 2016;28(3):204-213. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.12.012.

Chagas CE, Borges MC, Martini LA, Rogero MM. Focus on vitamin D, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients. 2012;4(1):52-67. doi:10.3390/nu4010052.

Maestro B, Dávila N, Carranza MC, Calle C. Identification of a Vitamin D response element in the human insulin receptor gene promoter. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;84(2-3):223-230. doi:10.1016/s0960-0760(03)00032-3.

Shojaeian Z, Sadeghi R, Latifnejad Roudsari R. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation effects on metabolic factors, menstrual cycles and follicular responses in women with polycystic ocvary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Caspian J Intern Med. 2019;10(4):359-369. doi:10.22088/cjim.10.4.359.

Plymate SR, Matej LA, Jones RE, Friedl KE. Inhibition of sex hormone-binding globulin production in the human hepatoma (Hep G2) cell line by insulin and prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67(3):460-464. doi:10.1210/jcem-67-3-460.

He C, Lin Z, Robb SW, Ezeamama AE. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2015;7(6):4555-4577. doi:10.3390/nu7064555.

Pankiv V, Pankiv I. Association of vitamin D status with body mass index in adolescents in Ukraine. Romanian Journal of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases. 2018;25(4):377-381.

Conway G, Dewailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, et al. The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;171(4):P1-P29. doi:10.1530/EJE-14-0253.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911-1930. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385.

Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412-419. doi:10.1007/BF00280883.

Kaminskyi OV, Pankiv VI, Pankiv IV, Afanasyev DE. Vitamin D content in population of radiologically contaminated areas in Chernivtsi oblast (pilot project). Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol. 2018;23:442-451. doi:10.33145/2304-8336-2018-23-442-451.

Goncharova OA, Partskhaladze VI, Il’ina IM. Metabolic obesity with normal body weight. Unresolved diagnostic issues. Endocrynologia. 2013;18(4):50-54. (in Russian).

Caserta D, Adducchio G, Picchia S, Ralli E, Matteucci E, Moscarini M. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014;30(6):397-402. doi:10.3109/09513590.2014.887673.

Forouhi NG, Luan J, Cooper A, Boucher BJ, Wareham NJ. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000. Diabetes. 2008;57(10):2619-2625. doi:10.2337/db08-0593.

Nikolova MG, Boyanov MA, Tsakova AD. Correlations of serum vitamin D with metabolic parameters in adult outpatients with different degrees of overweight/obesity coming from an urban community. Acta Endocrinol (Buchar). 2018;14(3):375-383. doi:10.4183/aeb.2018.375.

Moran LJ, Teede HJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Norman RJ, Wittert GA. Sex hormone binding globulin, but not testosterone, is associated with the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013;36(11):1004-1010. doi:10.3275/9023.

Deswal R, Yadav A, Dang AS. Sex hormone binding globulin - an important biomarker for predicting PCOS risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2018;64(1):12-24. doi:10.1080/19396368.2017.1410591.



How to Cite

Arkhypkina, T., Bondarenko, V., Goncharova, O., & Lyubimovа L. (2021). Vitamin D level and indicators of carbohydrate metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), 16(5), 381–386.



Original Researches

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>