Leptin and adiponectin in patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism
Keywords:adiponectin, leptin, chronic kidney disease, secondary hyperparathyroidism
Background. The results of studies evaluating the levels of adiponectin, leptin and their ratios in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are conflicting. It is assumed that hyperleptinemia and changes in adiponectin clearance are consequences of a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, they exacerbate renal impairment and may affect the prognosis of survival due to cardiovascular events. It is known that secondary hyperaparathyroidism is the most frequent complication of CKD, which not only affects calcium-phosphorus metabolism and bone tissue, but also contributes to the development of pathological processes involving other hormonal and metabolic markers. Of greatest interest is the assessment of adipocytokine levels in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism against the background of CKD as an independent factor of increasing cardiovascular risks. The purpose of the study was to assess adipocytokine levels (adiponectin, leptin) and their ratios in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and their relationship with manifestations of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 160 people with CKD and 40 healthy individuals as a comparison group. Results. Leptin level reduction and an increase in the proportion of patients with hypoleptinemia with a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate were found, which may be an important factor determining nutritional status. Correlations were revealed between leptin level, body mass index (ρ = 0.411) and patients’ age (ρ = 0.189), as well as between leptin/adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratios (ρ = 0.395 and ρ = –0.395) and body mass index in patients with CKD persisting in subgroups by stage of renal failure. A relationship was found with sex for leptin and a decrease in its levels below normal values in both men and women. Conclusions. The proportion of patients with hyperadiponectinemia was significantly higher among those with end-stage CKD compared to patients with stages 1–2. There was no statistically significant relationship between adipocytokine and parathyroid hormone levels and the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients examined.
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