Heart geometry in climacteric syndrome on the background of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Keywords:climacteric syndrome, type 1 diabetes mellitus, heart geometry
Background. The climacteric period in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) initiates an additional damaging effect on the existing cardinal pathology associated with DM. The purpose was to establish the features of geometric remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart in women with DM1 during the climacteric period. Materials and methods. The study involved 60 women with type 1 diabetes at the age of 48.74 ± 0.65 years, including 41 perimenopausal and 19 postmenopausal ones. The control group consisted of 20 women without diabetes mellitus at the age of 50.02 ± 0.71 years. According to echocardiography, taking into account the stage of menopause, the indicators of the end-diastolic volume (EDV) and size (EDS), the posterior wall thickness of the LV (LVPWT) and the interventricular septum (IVST) were analyzed. The frequency of various types of geometric remodeling of the left ventricle of the heart was analyzed using the Penn Convention formula; for this, the LV myocardial mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to the formulas LVMI = 1.04 [(EDS + LVPWT + IVST)3 – EDS3] – 13.6 (LVMI = ratio LVMI to the plane of the body surface (A) in m2; AM2 = 1 + Weight + Δh / 100, where Δh is the difference between the height of a woman and 160 cm) and the relative wall thickness of the LV (LVRWT) LVRWT = 2LVPWT / EDS. Based on these data, the frequency of various types of geometric remodeling was established: normal geometry, concentric remodeling, concentric or eccentric LV hypertrophy. Results. The data obtained indicate that postmenopausal women present a significant decrease in the frequency of normal heart geometry compared to perimenopausal women (26.4 versus 75.6 %, p < 0.001) and the frequency of concentric LV remodeling 3.5 times increases (26.3 versus 7.3 %, respectively). Concentric hypertrophy and eccentric LV hypertrophy prevailed 2.5 times in postmenopausal women (31.6 versus 12.1 % and 12.7 versus 4.9 %). Conclusions. In perimenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in almost a quarter of cases, geometric remodeling of the left ventricle of the heart takes place. In postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency, the frequency of pathological forms of heart geometry exceeds 75 %. The strategy of therapy for cardiac pathology in menopausal women against the background of DM1 should take into account the pathogenetic mechanisms of pathology associated with impaired carbohydrate metabolism and atherogenic measurements against the background of estrogen deficiency as well as limit polypharmacy.
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