Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 and thyroid

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.17.4.2021.237348

Keywords:

COVID-19, thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, hypothyroidism, SARS-CoV-2

Abstract

In patients who were not previously diagnosed with any thyroid conditions, the scenario of COVID-19 related anomalies of the thyroid may include either: a process of central thyroid-stimulating hormone disturbances via virus‑related hypophysitis; an atypical type of subacute thyroiditis which is connected to the virus spread or to excessive cytokine production including a destructive process with irreversible damage to the gland or low triiodothyronine syndrome (non-thyroidal illness syndrome) which is not specifically related to the COVID‑19 infection, but which is associated with a very severe illness status. This review aimed to investigate thyroid changes resulted from the COVID-19 infection. Ongoing assessment of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will reveal more information on coronavirus-induced thyroid conditions. Routine thyroid assays performed in patients with severe infection/acute phase of COVID-19 are encouraged to detect thyrotoxicosis. After recovery, thyroid function should be assessed to identify potential hypothyroidism. There remain unanswered questions related to the predictive value of interleukin-6 in infected patients, especially in cases of cytokine storm, and the necessity of thyroid hormone replacement in subjects with hypophysitis-related central hypothyroidism.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Parolin M, Parisotto M, Zanchetta F, Sartorato P, De Menis E. Coronaviruses and Endocrine System: a Systematic Review on Evidences and Shadows. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Sep 5. doi: 10.2174/1871530320666200905123332.

Șandru F, Carsote M, Petca RC, et al. COVID-19-related thyroid conditions (Review). Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):756. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10188.

Young MJ, Clyne CD, Chapman KE. Endocrine aspects of ACE2 regulation: RAAS, steroid hormones and SARS-CoV-2. J Endocrinol. 2020 Nov;247(2):R45-R62. doi: 10.1530/JOE-20-0260.

Ye Q, Wang B, Mao J. The pathogenesis and treatment of the `Cytokine Storm' in COVID-19. J Infect. 2020 Jun;80(6):607-613. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.037.

Nehme M, Braillard O, Alcoba G, et al. COVID-19 Symptoms: Longitudinal Evolution and Persistence in Outpatient Settings. Ann Intern Med. 2021 May;174(5):723-725. doi: 10.7326/M20-5926.

Shekhar S, Wurth R, Kamilaris CDC, et al. Endocrine Conditions and COVID-19. Horm Metab Res. 2020 Jul;52(7):471-484. doi: 10.1055/a-1172-1352.

Caron P. Thyroid disorders and SARS-CoV-2 infection: From pathophysiological mechanism to patient management. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2020 Oct;81(5):507-510. doi: 10.1016/j.ando.2020.09.001.

Gorini F, Bianchi F, Iervasi G. COVID-19 and Thyroid: Progress and Prospects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 11;17(18):6630. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186630.

Gavriatopoulou M, Korompoki E, Fotiou D, et al. Organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Clin Exp Med. 2020 Nov;20(4):493-506. doi: 10.1007/s10238-020-00648-x.

Khoo B, Tan T, Clarke SA, Mills EG, et al. Thyroid Function Before, During, and After COVID-19. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 23;106(2):e803-e811. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa830.

Pashkovska NV. Pseudothyroid dysfunction in clinical practice: how to avoid diagnostic errors. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(4):344-353. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.14.4.2018.140188. (in Ukrainian).

Chen M, Zhou W, Xu W. Thyroid Function Analysis in 50 Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study. Thyroid. 2021 Jan;31(1):8-11. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0363.

Muller I, Cannavaro D, Dazzi D, et al. SARS-CoV-2-related atypical thyroiditis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Sep;8(9):739-741. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30266-7.

Brancatella A, Ricci D, Cappellani D, et al. Is Subacute Thyroiditis an Underestimated Manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection? Insights From a Case Series. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 1;105(10):dgaa537. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa537.

Mattar SAM, Koh SJQ, Rama Chandran S, Cherng BPZ. Subacute thyroiditis associated with COVID-19. BMJ Case Rep. 2020 Aug 25;13(8):e237336. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-237336.

Urbanovych AM, Laniush FV, Lishchuk OZ, Kozlovska KYu. COVID-19: a new etiological factor of Graves’ disease? Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2020;16(7):593-597. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.16.7.2020.219014. (in Ukrainian).

Asfuroglu Kalkan E, Ates I. A case of subacute thyroiditis associated with Covid-19 infection. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1173-1174. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01316-3.

Ippolito S, Dentali F, Tanda ML. SARS-CoV-2: a potential trigger for subacute thyroiditis? Insights from a case report. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1171-1172. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01312-7.

Francisco Javier López Maldonado, Rene Arturo Cota Arreola. Biopsy Confirmed Subacute Thyroiditis Associated With COVID-19. Journal of the Endocrine Society. 2021;5(Suppl 1):A922. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.1884.

Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Esposito K. Endocrine complications of COVID-19: what happens to the thyroid and adrenal glands? J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1169-1170. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01311-8.

Lania A, Sandri MT, Cellini M, Mirani M, Lavezzi E, Mazziotti G. Thyrotoxicosis in patients with COVID-19: the THYRCOV study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2020 Oct;183(4):381-387. doi: 10.1530/EJE-20-0335.

Ruggeri RM, Campennì A, Deandreis D, et al. SARS-COV-2-related immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders: facts and perspectives. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021 Jun 2:1-23. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1932467.

Pal R. COVID-19, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and clinical implications. Endocrine. 2020 May;68(2):251-252. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02325-1.

Speer G, Somogyi P. Thyroid complications of SARS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Endocr J. 2021 Feb 28;68(2):129-136. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0443.

Djakpo DK, Wang Z, Zhang R, Chen X, Chen P, Antoine MMLK. Blood routine test in mild and common 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) patients. Biosci Rep. 2020 Aug 28;40(8):BSR20200817. doi: 10.1042/BSR20200817.

Shams PN. High-Dose Oral Methylprednisolone for the Management of Severe Active Thyroid Eye Disease During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 Jul/Aug;36(4):418-419. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000001787.

Kaiser UB, Mirmira RG, Stewart PM. Our Response to COVID-19 as Endocrinologists and Diabetologists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 1;105(5):dgaa148. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa148.

Velayoudom FL, Alwis Wijewickrama PS, Ranathunga HI, Somasundaram N. Endocrine vigilance in COVID-19. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020 May;70(Suppl 3)(5):S83-S86. doi: 10.5455/JPMA.16.

van Gerwen M, Alsen M, Little C, et al. Outcomes of Patients With Hypothyroidism and COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Aug 18;11:565. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00565.

Kumar A, Arora A, Sharma P, et al. Clinical Features of COVID-19 and Factors Associated with Severe Clinical Course: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SSRN [Preprint]. 2020:3566166. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3566166.

Iughetti L, Trevisani V, Cattini U, et al. COVID-19 and Type 1 Diabetes: Concerns and Challenges. Acta Biomed. 2020 Sep 7;91(3):e2020033. doi: 10.23750/abm.v91i3.10366.

Kalra S, Mittal S. COVID-19 and diabetes: Covidiabetology. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020 Jun;70(6):954-955.

Isidori AM, Arnaldi G, Boscaro Mб et al. COVID-19 infection and glucocorticoids: update from the Italian Society of Endocrinology Expert Opinion on steroid replacement in adrenal insufficiency. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Aug;43(8):1141-1147. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01266-w.

Kaminskyi OV, Pankiv VI, Pankiv IV, Afanasyev DE. Vitamin d content in population of radiologically contaminated areas in chernivtsi oblast (pilot project). Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol. 2018 Dec;23:442-451. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2018-23-442-451.

Weir EK, Thenappan T, Bhargava M, Chen Y. Does vitamin D deficiency increase the severity of COVID-19? Clin Med (Lond). 2020 Jul;20(4):e107-e108. doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0301.

Montesinos MDM, Pellizas CG. Thyroid Hormone Action on Innate Immunity. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Jun 4;10:350. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00350.

Downloads

Published

2022-01-04

How to Cite

Pankiv, V., Pashkovska, N., Pankiv, I., Maslyanko, V., & Tsaryk, I. (2022). Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 and thyroid. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), 17(4), 329–333. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.17.4.2021.237348

Issue

Section

Literature Review

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>