Analysis of the prevalence of thyroid pathology during gestation among women from Lviv region
Keywords:thyroid gland, iodine deficiency, pregnancy, childbirth
Background. The unified theory of iodine deficiency does not provide a comprehensive coverage of the etiological and pathogenetic essence of goiter transformation. It was found that in areas with the same level of iodine deficiency, there is often a different incidence of goiter in pregnant women, and in one region, the incidence is recorded only among a part of women, with different degrees of thyroid gland enlargement. The purpose of the study is to establish the frequency of thyroid diseases in pregnant women who live in Lviv region, as well as factors affecting the nature of thyroid pathology development during gestation. Materials and methods. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in pregnant women in Lviv region was monitored for the period from 2010 to 2015. In addition, statistical data on the frequency and structure of thyroid pathology among pregnant women, the characteristics of the pregnancy course, childbirth, and the condition of newborns according to the data of maternity wards of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital were studied. To clarify the structure of prevalence and quantitative nosological distribution of thyroid pathology among pregnant women, a statistical analysis of birth histories provided by maternity wards (department of extragenital pathology and department of pathological pregnancy) for the 2015 was conducted. Results. Monitoring the mountainous areas of Lviv region indicates an increase in the frequency of thyroid pathology in pregnant women, specifically in the mountainous areas with iodine deficiency (Sambir), and a significant increases in the industrial foothill areas (Stryi) and Lviv. When evaluating the frequency of thyroid diseases in pregnant women from Lviv region, a lack of an effective system for iodine prophylaxis was detected, which is characterized by an increase in thyropathy in absolute values from 1500–2000 cases in 2010 to 5000–6000 cases in 2015 (almost 2.5fold increase). Conclusions. Climategeographical, socioeconomic, environmental, industrial features of Lviv region increase the severity of goiter endemia, affect the nature of the development and epidemiological parameters of thyroid pathology among pregnant women, lead to an increase in the frequency of pathological course of gestation, childbirth, deterioration of physical and intellectual development of children.
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