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Background. Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common tumor of the endocrine glands. The problem of thyroid cancer in Ukraine went far beyond the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster and is characterized by increasing morbidity of this pathology. Objective: to study the morbidity of thyroid cancer in Vinnytsia region. Materials and methods. The dynamics of thyroid cancer for the last 30 years (1986–2015) among the residents of Vinnytsia region was assessed. Results. The analysis of thyroid cancer rate for 30-year period shows its steady growth, especially for the last 10 years. The morbidity in the pre accident period ranged 1.0–1.2 cases per 100 thousand population; the first 10 years after the accident, it grew up to 2.2–2.8, in 2001–2005 it increased to 4.4–5.5 cases per 100 thousand population, and in recent years 9.9–11.3 cases per 100 thousand population. When compared morbidity in Vinnytsia region with the republic data, these indicators in region are more higher than in the whole Ukraine, but much less than in the regions most affected by the Chernobyl disaster (Kyiv region, city of Kyiv). In the region the morbidity significantly prevails among women compared to the male population. The analysis of the dynamics of thyroid cancer rate in different age groups did not demonstrate statistically significant differences. Conclusions. The researches of thyroid cancer structure among the residents of Vinnytsia region showed a strong growth of the diseases rate in adult patients. The level of the region morbidity exceeds republican date and tends to increase, with highly differentiated forms prevail which are characterized by mildly aggressive course, mostly in women, in solitary nodes less than 20 mm. That should arouse oncologic alertness in these patients.
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