Epidemiological Aspects and the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Residents of Almaty and Almaty Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

S.F. Berkinbaev, G.A. Dzhunusbekov, L.B. Danyarova, A.B. Tashmanova, Zh.Zh. Shyman

Abstract


Background. The main risk factors for developing of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle, are common to a variety of chronic non-infectious diseases. In this regard, type 2 DM can be considered an important and logically justified starting point for the prevention and control of this patho­logy. The aim — to investigate the epidemiological indicators, risk factors of type 2 DM based on cross-sectional study of the population of Almaty and Almaty region of Kazakhstan. Material and methods. We have examined persons aged 18–69 years living in Almaty and Almaty region. The study was conducted in three stages: interviews with respondents, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Results. Risk factors of type 2 DM can be divided into non-modifiable and modifiable. Analysis of the survey results on a national basis has revealed a significant prevalence of DM among Russians (15.35 %) compared with the Kazakhs (4.9 %, p < 0.01), with other Asian ethnic groups (10.7 %, p < 0.05). But the comparison of DM incidence in Russians with that of other Europeans (8.3 %) and Ukrainians (7.1 %) did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). The age proved to be a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 DM, and the odds ratio (OR) was 1 : 9 (OR = 9.266), in the age group over 45 years, the risk of type 2 DM increases by 9 times. Gender-based analysis did not reveal significant differences, the odds ratio was 1 : 1 (OR = 1.063). Genetic predisposition to DM refers to a group of the absolute risk of morbidity, the analysis of questionnaires showed that 271 respondents pointed to first-degree relatives with a history of DM, while diabetes occurred in 14.8 %. The remaining 1,304 people had no family history of DM, and diabetes among them occurred in 5.8 % of cases. The odds ratio was 1 : 3 (OR = 2.920). A comparison of modifiable risk factors in the groups of respondents with DM and without it showed significant differences in body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure. The values of all parameters in patients with DM were significantly higher than in those without it (p < 0.05). The survey revealed that people with DM compared with those without it suffer from hypertension 2 times more often, ischemic heart disease — more than 3 times, myocardial infarction occurs 6 times, stroke — 4 times more often. Conclusions. The analysis of the risk factors of type 2 DM in the population confirmed the impact of such absolute factors, such as race, age and genetic predisposition, on the prevalence of DM. Significant contribution to the development of the disease also make such modifiable factors: obesity, glucose cholesterol levels, concomitant cardiovascular disease.

Keywords


сhronic non-infectious diseases; type 2 diabetes mellitus; epidemiology; risk factors

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.6.78.2016.81857

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