Calcification and Apoptosis of Blood Cells as a Marker of the Presence, Severity and Progression of Coronary Heart Disease Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Ultrastructural and Cytological Studies

Yu.H. Kyiiak, M.A. Kohut, O. Yu. Andrushevska, L.M. Kohut, H. Yu. Kyiiak, O. Yu. Barnett


Background. The increase of intercellular content of Ca2+ leads to the initiation of apoptosis processes and calcification of the cells of the blood and cardiovascular system. The close relationship between the apoptosis of blood cells and their calcification gives reason to believe that calcium is an important marker and initiator of this process. Objective of the study — to follow-up ultrastructural changes and the state of cellular immunity in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and to identify the association between increased intracellular calcium in red blood cells and calcification of coronary arteries. Materials and methods. The study involved 20 patients with ACS associated with type 2 DM. The control group included 10 persons. The average age of patients was 65.0 ± 5.6 years. The following examinations were performed: multispiral computed tomography; cytological determination of calcium salts in red blood cells using McGee-Russell method; immunological study of leukocyte apoptosis by means of ApoLect set; electron microscopy for detection of ultrastructural signs of blood cell apoptosis. Results. In patients with high and very high index of calcification of the coronary arteries, the presence of calcium granules of various sizes and shapes in red blood cells can be detected cytologically, as well as aniso- and poikilocytosis; immunologically — an increase in the number of apoptotically altered blood cells and the appearance of necrotically modified ones; also, classic ultrastructural signs of leukocyte apoptosis are typical. Conclusions. The presence of ACS in patients with type 2 DM is associated with activation of leukocyte apoptosis processes, accumulation of calcium ions in red blood cells, which is accompanied by a high and very high index of calcification of the coronary arteries. Detection of such changes in the study of peripheral blood of patients enables to suspect timely the threat of coronary heart disease and to prevent its serious complications.


apoptosis; calcification; acute coronary syndrome; type 2 diabetes mellitus; blood cells


Ostapchenko LI, Synelnyk TB, Ribalchenko TV, Ribalchenko VK. [Biochemicalmechanismsofapoptosis: a tutorial]. PublishingandPrintingCenter "KyivUniversity". 2010:8-9 Ukrainian

HandzyukVA. [AnalysisoftheincidenceofcoronaryheartdiseaseinUkraine].UkrainianJournalofCardiology. 2014;3Ukrainian

Nykonenko OS, Nykonenko AA, Gavrilenko BS, Lozoviy AI. [Diagnosisofcoronaryarteriesinpatientswithcoronaryheartdiseaseusingcomputedtomographymultyzrizovoyi].ZaporozhyeMedical Journal.2015;1(88):4-8Ukrainian

Kolesnik NV, Kachanova ZS. [Biologyneutrophils, modernlook. Review]. JournalofZaporizhzhyaNationalUniversity. 2009;1Ukrainian

HomolyakoIV, NikulnikovPI, Liskunov AV.[Thestateofneutrophilsas a riskfactorforpostoperativecomplicationsofabdominalaorticaneurysms].Heartandbloodvessels. 2015;3:80-85 Ukrainian

Tseluyko SS, Zynovev SV. [Proposed Mechanisms histochemical Studies calcium, iron, sodium, zinc etc. And vitamins in the body]. HBOU IDPs Amur state medical academy, Blagoveshchensk. 2013:17 Russian

Blaha MJ,Budoff MJ, DeFilippis AP,Blankstein R, Rivera JJ, Agatston A, O’Leary DH, Lima J, Blumenthal RS, Nasir K. Associations between C-reactive protein, coronaryarterycalcium, and cardiovascular events: Implications for the JUPITER population from MESA,a population-based cohort study. Lancet.2011;378:684-692.

HermannDM,Jockel KH.Coronary artery calcification is an independent stroke predictor in the general population. Stroke. 2013;44:1008-1013.

Polonsky TS, McClelland RL, Jorgensen NW,Bild DE, Burke GL,Guerci AD. Coronary artery calcium score and risk classification for coronary heart diseaseprediction. JAMA 2010;303:1610-1016.

Elias-SmaleSE,ProencaRV,KollerMT,Hunink MG, Witteman JC. Coronary calcium score improvesclassification of coronary heart disease risk in the elderly: The Rotterdam study. Am. Coll. Cardiol.2010;56:1407-1414.

Viskupicova J, BlaskovicD, Galiniak S, Soszyński M, Bartosz G, Horakova L, Sadowska-Bartosz I. Effect of high glucose concentrations on human erythrocytes in vitroRedox Biology. 2015;5:381-387.

Vittori D, Vota D,NesseА. Erythrocyte: Programmed Cell Death, Anemia, Dr.Donald Silverberg (Ed.), Available from:

PandeyAK, Blaha MJ, Sharma K, Rivera J,Budoff MJ,BlanksteinR. Family history of coronary heart disease and the incidenceand progression of coronary artery calcification: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis.2014;232:369-376.

Kucherenko YV, Bhavsar SK, GrischenkoVI, FischerUR, HuberSM. Increased cation conductance in human erythrocytes artificially aged by glycation. Membr. Biol. 2010;235:177-189.

Kumar R. Biochemical changes in erythrocyte membrane in type 2 diabetesmellitus, Indian J. Med. Sci.2012;66:131-135.

MannoS, MohandasN, Takakuwa Y. ATP-dependent mechanism protectsspectrin against glycation in human erythrocytes. Biol. Chem.2010:33923-33929.

Quintanar-EscorzaMA, Gonzalez-Martinez MT, Intriago-Ortega MP, Calderon-Salinas JV. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+] iconcentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead. ToxicolInVitr.2010;24:1338-1346.

OkwuosaTM, Burke GL, Cushman MМ, Lloyd-Jones DM. Prediction of coronary artery calcium progression in individuals with lowFramingham Risk Score: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging. 2012;5:144-153.

NaguehSF, MikatiI, WeilbaecherD. Relation of the contractile reserve of hibernating myocardial structure in humans. Circulation.1999;98:490-496.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


© "Publishing House "Zaslavsky", 1997-2019


   Seo анализ сайта