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The levels of selenium and cadmium in the hair of women living at least ten years in the city of Kharkiv have been studied. We have analyzed data in the groups with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and without thyroid pathology (controls), as well as in subgroups with diffuse and diffuse focal thyroid pathology against the background of AIT. It is found that the level of selenium in women was reduced irrespective of the presence of AIT, including the nature of the lesions of the thyroid gland against the background of AIT. This could indicate a lack of selenium supplementation in Kharkiv residents. Cadmium level was significantly more often elevated in the group with AIT compared with controls (40.0 vs. 6.7 %), while in women with AIT it was significantly higher in the subgroup with diffuse focal thyroid pathology. Taking into account the literature data about the antagonism between selenium and cadmium, one of approaches to prevention of thyroid nodule formation may be normalization of selenium supplementation at the population and individual level.
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