Main Article Content
The paper analyzes the data of modern scientific literature on the new class of drugs that restore the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). According to modern concepts, the pathophysio-logical mechanisms of therapeutic action of GLP-1 analogues in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 primarily due to their bene-ficial effects on β-cell dysfunction, whose role in the pathogenesis of DM type 2 until recently been underestimated. The main targets of GLP-1 are pancreatic islets, where it glucose-dependently stimulates production and secretion of insulin and somatostatin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 inhibits β-cell destruction and stimulates their proliferation, increasing their number. The article presents information on the main multicenter studies on analogues of human GLP-1, analyzes hypoglycemic effectiveness of incretins and others of their positive effects.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Buse J., Rosenstock J., Sesti G. et al. Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6) // Lancet. — 2009. — V. 374. — P. 39-47.
Гарднер Д., Шобек Д. Базисная и клиническая эндокринология (книга первая). — Москва: Бином, 2010. — С. 264-266.
Leight S., Eicklmann P., Mayet S. Regulation of peptide hormone release from neuroendocrine cells in the gut at the pancreas // Diabetologia. — 2007. — Vol. 50, suppl. 1. — P. 694.
Joanny G., Tellez N., Estiles E. et al. Increased beta cells replication and mass in 95% pancreatectomized rats treated with a DPPIV stabilized GLP-1 analogue // Diabetologia. — 2007. — Vol. 50, suppl. 1. — 0690.
Buse J., Nauck M.A., Forst T. Efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly versus liraglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-6): a randomization, open-label study // Diabetologia. — 2011. — Vol. 54, suppl. 1. — 75.
Zhang Z., Yang G., Li L. The effect of liraglutide on metabolism in Apo-/-mice with RNAi-mediated adiponectin gene inhibition // Diabetologia. — 2010. — Vol. 1, suppl. 1. — 636.
Miao Z., Li L., Yang G. Liraglutide attenuated hypoadiponectinaemia-induced deterioration in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and alterations of gene expression in glucose and lipid metabolism // Diabetologia. — 2011. — Vol. 54, suppl. 1. — 515.
Nauck M., Pratley R. et al. Adding Liraglutide to Existing Therapy ratherthan Substituting it for Existing Therapy Produces Greater Improvement in Glycemic Control: Evidence from a Meta-analysis // 69th ADA Scientific Sessions Abstract Book. — 2009. — Poster 549.
Sokos G.G., Nikolaidis L.A., Mankad S. et al. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Infusion Improves Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Functional Status in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure // Journal of Cardiac Failure. — 2006. — Vol. 12. — P. 694-699.
Mazzone T., Chait A., Plutzky J. Cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus // Lancet. — 2008. — Vol. 24. — P. 1800-1809.
Lorber D. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Reduction // Cardiovascular Therapeutics. — 2013. — Vol. 31(4). — P. 238-249.
Matthews D.R., Dejager S., Ahren B. et al. Vildagliptin add-on to metformin produces similar efficacy and reduced hypoglycaemic risk compared with glimepiride, with no weight gain: results from a 2-year study // Diab. Obes. Metab. — 2010. — V. 12. — P. 780-789.
Zinman B. et al. Insulin degludec, an ultra-long-acting basal insulin, once a day or three times a week versus insulin glargine once a day in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 16-week, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial // Lancet. — 2011. — V. 377. — P. 924-931.
Russell-Jones D. Current developments in the treatment of diabetes: the incretin therapies // British Journal of Diabetes. — 2010. — Vol. 10. — P. 21-30.
Nauck M., Petrie G., Sesti G. et al. The once-weekly human GLP-1 analogue semaglutide provides significant reductions in HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes // Diabetologia. — 2012. — Vol. 55, suppl. 1. — 2.
Meier J.J. GLP-1 receptor agonists for individualized treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus // Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. — 2012. — V. 8(12). — P. 728-42.
Diamant M., Gaal L.V., Stranks S. Safety and efficacy of once-weekly Exenatide compared with insulin Glargine titrated to Target in patients with Type 2 Diabetes over 84 weeks // Diabetes Care. — 2012. — V. 35. — P. 683-689.
Yki-Järvinen H., Rosenstock J., Durán-Garcia S. et al. Effects of adding linagliptin to basal insulin regimen for inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes: a ≥ 52-week randomized, double-blind study // Diabetes Care. — 2013. — V. 36(12). — P. 3875-3881.
Ahrén B., Dimas A.L., Miossec P. et al. Efficacy and safety of lixisenatide once-daily morning or evening injections in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin (GetGoal-M) // Diabetes Care. — 2013. — doi: 10.2337/dc12-2006.
Cornell S., Dorsey V.J. Diabetes pharmacotherapy in 2012: considerations in medication selection // Postgrad Med. — 2012. — V. 124(4). — P. 84-94.
Umpierrez G.E., Meneghini L. Reshaping diabetes care: the fundamental role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in clinical practice // Endocr. Pract. — 2013. — V. 19(4). — P. 718-728.
Aroda V.R., Henry R.R., Han J. et al. Efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors: meta-analysis and systematic review // Clin. Ther. — 2012. — V. 34(6). — P. 1247-1258.
Lichiardopol R., Florentiu A., Radoi V. Body composition and the metabolic impact of weight excess in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus // Acta Endocr. (Buc). — 2010. — V. 6(4). — P. 493-506.
Grunberger G. Clinical utility of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin // Postgrad Med. — 2013. — V. 125(3). — P. 79-90.
Зак К.П., Маньковский Б.Н., Мельниченко С.В. и др. Иммунитет больных сахарным диабетом 2-го типа с сопутствующим метаболическим синдромом/ожирением. Сообщение 2. Роль адипоцитов (интерлейкина-6, фактора некроза опухолей альфа, лептина, адипонектина) // Эндокринология. — 2013. — № 1. — С. 65-78.
Lewin A., Arvay L., Liu D. et al. Efficacy and tolerability of linagliptin added to a sulfonylurea regimen in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 18-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial // Clin. Ther. — 2012. — V. 34(9). — P. 1909-1919.
Forst T., Lübben G., Hohberg C. Influence of glucose control and improvement of insulin resistance on microvascular blood flow and endothelial function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 // Microcirculation. — 2005. — 12(7). — P. 543-50.
Fernández-Real J.M., Pickup J.C. Innate immunity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes // Diabetologia. — 2012. — V. 55. — P.273-238.
Harrison L.B., Mora P.F., Clark G.O., Lingvay I. Type 1 diabetes treatment beyond insulin: role of GLP-1 analogs // J. Investig. Med. — 2013. — V. 61. — P. 40-44.
Heller S.R. et al. Liraglutide Is a Safe and Beneficial Adjunct to Insulin in Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes-Diabetologia // EASD. — 2013. — abstr. 3; NCT01536665.
Kielgast U., Holst J.J., Madsbad S. Treatment of type 1 diabetic patients with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1R agonists // Curr. Diabetes Rev. — 2009. — V. 5(4). — P. 266-275.
Klonoff D.C., Buse J.B., Nielsen L.L. et al. Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years // Curr. Med. Res. Opin. — 2008. — V. 24. — P. 275-286.
Pratley А. et al. Liraglutide compared to sitagliptin, both in combination with metformin, in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a 26-week, randomised, parallel-group, open-label trial // Lancet. — 2010. — 375. — Р. 1447-1456.