The Role of Visceral Adipose Tissue in the Development of Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Obesity and Arterial Hypertension

K.O. Zuyev

Abstract


The article presents the results of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) level study, as well as insulin resistance and secretory activity of the β-cells of the pancreas, depending on the amount of adipose tissue and its distribution type, studied using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in 106 patients (50 men and 56 women aged 55.90 ± 2.15 years) with diabetes mellitus (DM, type 2, obesity and arterial hypertension, as compared with the control group (without DM, obesity, and hypertension). It has been shown that an excess amount of adipose tissue in patients with DM type 2 affects the development of hormone-metabolic disorders related to the features of adipokines production. It was found that overproduction of leptin by adipose tissue and decreased basal level of adiponectin in obesity create conditions to decrease the sensitivity of target cells to insulin-mediated glucose uptake, defatigation and subsequent depletion of the secretory function of β-cells of the pancreas, as well as to the maintenance of steady state of resistance to insulin and glucose homeostasis deviation towards hyperglycemic conditions prevail. Also there been shown physiologically determined sexual dimorphism of adipokines level conditioning higher tolerance of the female body to excess of adipose tissue mass. It was confirmed that the state of hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia underlie disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with DM 2 with obesity and hypertension.


Keywords


diabetes mellitus type 2; obesity; arterial hypertension; leptin; adiponectin; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; adipose tissue

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.4.60.2014.76684

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