Combined Therapy with Antihyperglycemic Oral Agents (Metformin, Sulfonylureas) and Insulin in the Management of Type 2 Diabetic Patients (Pathogenic Substantiation and Clinical Utility)

M.Yu. Horshunskaia

Abstract


The review deals with the prospect substantiation for using combined therapy by oral antihyperglycemic drugs with different mechanisms of action (metformin + sulfonylureas) and insulin for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The second oral drug is advisable to add, when the average doses of the first drug do not provide full effectiveness, and, since the doses of non-insulin antihyperglycemic drugs are usually not increased to a maximum, the side effects are reduced. Also, a combination of heterogeneous antidiabetic effects within and beyond the glycemic control, which is characteristic of biguanide (metformin), sulfonylurea (glimepiride) and insulin combination, such as reduction of hypoadiponectinemia, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, elimination of «hyperglycemic memory», preservation the phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning, increased pancreatic β-cell survival rate, etc., provides further advantages in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications.


Keywords


type 2 diabetes mellitus; metformin; glimepiride; insulin; combined therapy

References


Abrahamson MJ. Should sulfonylureas remain an acceptable first-line add-on to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes? Yes, they continue to serve us well! Diabetes Care 2015;38:160-169. doi: 10.2337/dc14-1945.

Ackermann RT, Finch EA, Brizendine E, Zhou H, Marrero DG. Translating the diabetes prevention program into the community. The DEPLOY Pilot study. Am J Prev Med 2008;35:357-363. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.06.035.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(Suppl 1):S41-48. doi: 10.2337/dc15-S010.

Basit A, Riaz M, Fawwad A. Glimipiride: evidence-based facts, trends, and observations. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2012;8:463-472. doi:10.2147/HIV.S33194.

Bennett WL, Maruthur NM, Singh S, Segal JB, Wilson LM, Chatterjee R, Marinopoulos SS, Puhan MA, Ranasinghe P, Block L, Nicholson WK, Hutfless S, Bass EB, Bolen S. Comparative effectiveness and safety of medications for type 2 diabetes: an update including new drugs and 2-drug combinations. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:602-613. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-9-201105030-00336.

Bergman RN. Lilly lecture 1989. Toward physiological understanding of glucose tolerance. Minimal-model approach. Diabetes 1989;38:1512-1527. doi:10.2337/diabetes.38.12.1512.

Boon H, Blaak EF, Saris WHM, Keizer HA, Wagenmakers AJM, van Loon LJC. Substrate source utilization in long-term diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients at rest, and during exercise and subsequent recovery. Diabetologia 2007;50:103-112. doi: 10.1007/s00125-006-0482-2.

Briscoe VJ, Griffith ML, Davis SN. The role of glimepiride in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2010;6:225-235. doi: 10.1517/17425250903512955.

Butler AE, Janson J, Bonner-Weir S, Ritzel R, Rizza RA, Butler PC. β-Cell deficit and increased β-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003;52:102-110. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.1.102.

Caulfield MT, O’Brien KD. Cardiovascular safety of oral antidiabetic agents: the insulin secretagogues. Clin Diabetes 2002;20:81-84. doi: 10.2337/diaclin.20.2.81

Cefalu WT, Buse JB, Del Prato S, Home PD, LeRoith D, Nauck MA, Raz I, Rosenstock J, Riddle MC. Beyond metformin: safety considerations in the decision-making process for selecting a second medication for type 2 diabetes management. Reflections from a Diabetes Care Editor's Expert Forum. Diabetes Care 2014;37:2647-2659. doi: 10.2337/dc14-1395.

Chow CC, Tsang LW, Sorensen JP, Cockram CS. Comparison of insulin with or without continuation of oral hypoglycemic agents in the treatments of secondary in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1995;18:307-314. doi:10.2337/diacare.18.3.307.

Defronzo RA. Banting lecture. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 2009;58:773-795. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.10.007.

Deguchi T, Hashiguchi T, Horinouchi S, Uto T, Oku H, Kimura K, Makisumi K, Arimura K. Serum VEGF increases in diabetic polyneuropathy, particularly in the neurologically active symptomatic stage. Diabet Med 2009;26(3):247-252. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02680.x.

Del Prato S, Bianchi C, Marchetti P. B-cell function and antidiabetic pharmacotherapy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2007;23:518-527. doi:10.2337/db09-9028.

Diedenhofen A, Rosenkranz B, Robkamp R. Scientific monograph Amaryl® 3rd revised edition. Aventis Pharma 2000:1-114.

Donath MY, Halban PA. Decreased β-cell mass in diabetes: significance, mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Diabetologia 2004;47:581-589. doi:10.1007/s00125-004-1336-4.

Ferdinandy P, Schulz R, Baxter GF. Interaction of cardiovascular risk factors with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, preconditioning, and postconditioning. Pharmacol Rev 2007;59:418-458. doi: 10.1124/pr.107.06002

Festa A, Williams K, Hanley AJ, Haffner SM. β-Cell dysfunction in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and early type 2 diabetes: comparison of surrogate markers with first-phase insulin secretion from an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Diabetes 2008;57:1638-1644. doi:10.2337/db07-0954.

Fritsche A, Schweitzer MA, Häring HU. Glimepiride combined with morning insulin glargine, bedtime neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, or bedtime insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:952-959. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-12-200306170-00006.

Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Effect of multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:580-589. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0706245.

Garber AJ. Benefits of combination therapy of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Arhc Intern Med 2003;163:1781-1782. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.15.1781.

Garber AJ, Abrahamson MJ, Barzilay JI Blonde L, Bloomgarden ZT, Bush MA, Dagogo-Jack S, Davidson MB, Einhorn D, Garvey WT,Grunberger G, Handelsman Y, Hirsch IB, Jellinger PS, McGill JB, Mechanick JI, Rosenblit PD, Umpierrez GE, Davidson MH. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists' comprehensive diabetes management algorithm 2013 consensus statement — executive summary. Endocr Pract 2013;19(Suppl.):536-557. doi: 10.4158/EP13176.CS.

Holman RR, Steemson J, Turner RC. Sulphonylurea failure in type 2 diabetes: treatment with a basal insulin supplement. Diabet Med 1987;4:457-462. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.1987.tb00909.x

Holman RR. Assessing the potential for α-glucosidase inhibitors in prediabetic states. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998;40(Suppl): S21-S25. PMID: 9740498

Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Neil HA, Matthews DR. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1577-1589. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806470.

Holstein A, Plaschke A, Egberts EH. Lower incidence of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glimepiride versus glibenclamide. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001;17:467-473. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.235

Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001;345:790-797. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010492.

Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E. et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A patient-centered approach: position statement of the american diabetes association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care 2012;35:1364-1379. doi:10.2337/dc12-0413.

Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, Peters AL, Tsapas A, Wender R, Matthews DR. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2015;38:140-149. doi: 10.2337/dc14-2441.

Ismail-Beigi F. Pathogenesis and glycemic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a psychological approach. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15(4):239-246. doi: 012154/AIM.0014.

Johnson JL, Wolf SL, Kabadi UM. Efficacy of insulin and sulfonylurea combination therapy in type II diabetes. A meta-analysis of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:259-264. doi:10.1001/archinte.1996.00440030049007.

Jojima T, Suzuki K, Hirama N, Uchida K, Hattori Y. Glimepiride upregulates eNOS activity and inhibits cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation through a phosphoinoside 3-kinase-Akt-dependent pathway. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009; 11:143-149. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00923.x.

Jollis JG, Simpson RJ Jr, Cascio WE, Chowdhury MK, Crouse JR 3rd, Smith SC Jr. Relation between sulfonylurea therapy, complications, and outcome for elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1999;138:S376-S380. PMID: 10539800.

Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T, Kubota N, Hara K, Ueki K, Tobe K. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 2006; 116:1784-1792. doi:10.1172/JCI29126.

Kahn SE, Prigeon RL, McCulloch DK, Boyko EJ, Bergman RN, Schwartz MW, Neifing JL, Ward WK, Beard JC, Palmer JP. Quantification of the relationship between insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in human subjects. Evidence for a hyperbolic function. Diabetes 1993;42:1663-1672. doi:10.2337/diab.42.11.1663.

Kahn SE, Halban PA. Release of incompletely processed proinsulin is the cause of the disproportionate proinsulinemia of NIDDM. Diabetes 1997; 46:1725-1732. doi:10.2337/diab.46.11.1725.

Kanda Y, Matsuda M, Tawaramoto K, Kawasaki F, Hashiramoto M, Matsuki M, Kaku K. Effects of sulfonylurea drugs on adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 adipocytes: implication of different mechanism from pioglitazone. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008; 81:13-18. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2008.01.031.

Karaca M, Magnan C, Kargar C. Functional pancreatic β-cell mass: involvement in type 2 diabetes and therapeutic intervention. Diabetes Metab 2009;35:77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2008.09.007.

Kishida K, Funahashi T, Shimomura I. Clinical importance of assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with visceral obesity. A Japanese perspective. Curr Diabetes Rev 2012;8:84-91. doi: 10.2174/157339912799424546.

Knowler WC., Connor E B, Fowler S E., Hamman R F., Lachin J M., Walker E A., Nathan D M; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393-403. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa012512.

Koshiba K, Nomura M, Nakaya Y, Ito S. Efficacy of glimepiride on insulin resistance, adipocytokines, and atherosclerosis. J Med Invest 2006;53:87-94. doi:10.2152/jmi.53.87

Leahy JL, Bonner-Weir S, Weir GC. β-Cell dysfunction induced by chronic hyperglycemia. Current ideas on mechanism of impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. Diabetes Care 1992;15:442-455. doi:10.2337/diacare.15.3.442

Leahy JL. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Med Res 2005;36:197-209. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.01.003.

Leahy JL, Hirsh IB, Peterson KA, Schneider D. Targeting b-cell function early in the course of therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:4206-4216. doi: 10.1210/jc/2010-0668.

Lebovitz HE, Pasmantier R. Combination insulin-sulfonylurea therapy. Diabetes Care 1990;13:667-675. doi:10.2337/diacare.13.6.667

Lee TM, Chou TF. Impairment of myocardial protection in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:531-537. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-020904.

Li Ch-J, Zhang J-Y, Yu De-M, Zhang Q-M. Adding glimepiride to current insulin therapy increases high-molecular weight adiponectin levels to improve glycemic control in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2014;6:41. doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-41.

Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, Li H, Li H, Jiang Y, An Y, Shuai Y, Zhang B, Zhang J, Thompson TJ, Gerzoff RB, Roglic G, Hu Y, Bennett PH. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 2008; 371(9626):1783-1789. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60766-7.

Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Eriksson JG, Hemiö K, Hämäläinen H, Härkönen P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, Paturi M, Sundvall J, Valle TT, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet 2006; 368 (9548):1673-1679. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69701-8

Liu M, Liu F. Regulation of adiponectin multimerization, signaling and function. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;28(1):25-31. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2013.06.003.

Loke YK, Kwok CS, Singh S. Comparative cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones: systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies BMJ 2011;342:d1309. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1309

Matthews DR. Oscillatory insulin secretion: a variable phenotypic marker. Diabet Med 1996;13:S53-S58. PMID: 8894483

Matthews DR, Cull CA, Stratton IM, Holman RR, Turner RC. UKPDS 26: Sulphonylurea failure in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients over six years. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Diabetic Med 1998;15:297-303. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199804)15:4 < 297::AID-DIA572 > 3.0.CO;2-W

Meier JJ. Beta cell mass in diabetes: a realistic therapeutic target? Diabetologia 2008;51:703-713. doi: 10.1007/s00125-008-0936-9.

Mironidou-Tzouveleki M, Tsartsalis S, Tomos C. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12(1):107-114. doi: 10.2174/138945011793591581.

Mocanu MM, Maddock HL, Baxter GF, Lawrence CL, Standen NB, Yellon DM. Glimepiride, a novel sulfonylurea, does not abolish myocardial protection afforded by either ischemic preconditioning or diazoxide. Circulation 2001;103:3111-3116. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.103.25.3111.

Muller G, Wied S. The sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, stimulates glucose transport, glucose transporter translocation, and dephosphorylation in insulin-resistant rat adipocytes in vitro. Diabetes 1993;42:1852-1867. doi:10.2337/diab.42.12.1852

Murry CE, Jennings RB, Reimer KA. Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation 1986;74:1124-1136. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124.

Nagayama D, Saiki A, Endo K, Yamaguchi T, Ban N, Kawana H, Ohira M, Oyama T, Miyashita Y, Shirai K. Improvement of cardio-ankle vascular index by glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 2010;64(13):1796-801. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02399.x.

Nakamura I, Oyama J, Komoda H, Shiraki A, Sakamoto Y, Taguchi I, Hiwatashi A, Komatsu A, Takeuchi M, Yamagishi S, Inoue T, Node K. Possible effects of glimepiride beyond glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a preliminary report. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2014;13:15. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-13-15.

Natali A, Ferrannini E. Effects of metformin and thiazolidinediones on suppression of hepatic glucose production and stimulation of glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetologia 2006;49:434-441. doi: 10.1007/s00125-006-0141-7.

Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, Ferrannini E, Holman RR, Sherwin R, Zinman B. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy a consensus statement of the American Diabetes association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:193-203. doi: 10.2337/dc08-9025.

Nyalakonda K, Sharma T, Ismail-Beigi F. Preservation of beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Endocr Practice 2010;16:1038-1055. doi: 10.4158/EP10112.RA.

Nybäck-Nakell A, Adamson U, Lins PE, Landstedt-Hallin L. Glycaemic responsiveness to long-term insulin plus sulphonylurea therapy as assessed by sulphonylurea withdrawal. Diabet Med 2007;24:1424-1429. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02286.x.

Ose H, Fukui M, Kitagawa Y, Hirata C, Ichio N, Kadono M, Mogami S, Onishi M, Ichida Y, Nakajima T, Hasegawa G, Yoshikawa T, Nakamura N. Efficacy of glimepiride in patients with poorly controlled insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr J 2005;52:563-569. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.52.563

Pantalone KM, Kattan MW, Yu C, Wells BJ, Arrigain S, Jain A, Atreja A, Zimmerman RS. The risk of overall mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving glipizide, glyburide, or glimepiride monotherapy: a retrospective analysis. Diabetes Care 2010;33:1224-1229. doi:10.2337/dc10-0017.

Park Ch.-Y, Kang JG, Chon S, Noh J, Oh SJ, Lee Ch B, Park SW. Comparison between the therapeutic effect of metformin, glimepiride and their combination as an add-on treatment to insulin glargine in uncontrolled patients with type 2 diabetes Plos ONE 2014;9:1-7. doi:10.1371//journal.pone.0087799.

Polonsky KS, Sturis J, Van Cauter E. Temporal profiles and clinical significance of pulsatile insulin secretion. Horm Res 1998;49:178-184. doi:10.1159/000023168)

Pørksen N. The in vivo regulation of pulsatile insulin secretion. Diabetologia 2002;45:3-20. doi:10.1007/s125-002-8240-x.

Pugh JA, Wagner ML, Sawyer J, Ramirez G, Tuley M, Friedberg SJ. Is combination of sulfonylurea and insulin therapy useful in NIDDM patients? A metaanalysis. Diabetes Care 1992;15:953-959. doi:10.2337/diacare.15.8.953

Riddle MC, Hart J, Bingham P, Garrison C, McDaniel P. Combined therapy for obese type 2 diabetes: suppertime mixed insulin with daytime sulfonylurea. Am J Med Sci 1992;303:151-156. ISSN: 1538-2990.

Riddle MC. Combined therapy with a sulfonylurea plus evening insulin: safe, reliable, and becoming routine. Horn Metab Res 1996;28:430-433. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979832.

Riddle MC, Schneider J. The glimepiride combination group beginning insulin treatment of obese patients with evening 70/30 insulin plus glimepiride versus insulin alone. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1052-1057. doi:10.2337/diacare.21.7.1052.

Riddle MC, Combined therapy with an insulin plus oral agents. Is there any advantage? An argument in favor. Diabetes Care 2008;31:S125-S130. doi: 10.2337/dc08-s231.

Røder ME, Porte JrD, Schwartz RS, Kahn SE. Disproportionately elevated proinsulin levels reflect the degree of impaired B-cell secretory capacity in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:604-608. doi:10.1210/jcem.83.2.4544.

Rosenstock J., Marx N., Kahn S. E., Zinman B., Kastelein J.J., Lachin J. M., Bluhmki E., Patel S., Johansen O-E., Woerle H-J. Cardiovascular outcome trials in type 2 diabetes and the sulphonylurea controversy: Rationale for the active-comparator CAROLINA trial. Diabet Vasc Dis Res 2013;10:289-301. doi: 10.1177/1479164112475102.

Rosenzweig JL, Ferrannini E, Grundy SM, Haffner SM, Heine RJ, Horton ES, Kawamori R. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in patients at metabolic risk: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:3671-3689. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-0222.

Rutter MK, Nesto RW. The BARI 2D Study: a randomised trial of therapies for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010;7(1):69-72. doi: 10.1177/1479164109354145.

Sanofi-Aventis Canada, Inc. Product Monograph (Amaryl, glimepiride). — 2009.

Schwartz S, Sievers R, Strange P, Lyness WH, Hollander P. Insulin 70/30 mix plus metformin versus triple oral therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes after failure of two oral drugs: efficacy, safety, and cost analysis. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2238-2243. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.8.2238.

Sсhade DS, Mitchell WJ, Griego G. Addition of sulfonylurea to insulin treatment in poorly controlled type II diabetes. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. JAMA 1987;257:2441-2445. doi:10.1001/jama.1987.03390180059023.

Siebel AL, Fernandez AZ, El-Osta A. Glycemic memory associated epigenetic changes. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2010;80:1853-1859. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.005.

Sladek R, Rocheleau G, Rung J, Dina C, Shen L, Serre D, Boutin P, Vincent D, Belisle A, Hadjadj S, Balkau B, Heude B, Charpentier G, Hudson TJ, Montpetit A, Pshezhetsky AV, Prentki M, Posner BI, Balding DJ, Meyre D, Polychronakos C, Froguel P. A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. Nature 2007;445:881-885. doi:10.1038/nature05616.

Stenman S, Groop PH, Saloranta C, Tötterman KJ, Fyhrqvist F, Groop L. Effects of the combination of insulin and glibenclamide in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with secondary failure to oral hypoglycaemic agents. Diabetologia 1988;31:206-213. doi:10.1007/BF00290586

Tabara Y, Osawa H, Kawamoto R, Onuma H, Shimizu I, Miki T, Kohara K, Makino H. Replication study of candidate genes associated with type 2 diabetes based on genome-wide screening. Diabetes 2009;58:493-498. doi:10.2337/db07-1785

Takahashi A. Nagashima K, Hamasaki A, Kuwamura N, Kawasaki Y, Ikeda H. et al. Sulfonylurea and glinide reduce insulin content, functional expression of K (ATP) channels, and accelerate apoptotic beta-cell death in the chronic phase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;77:343-350. doi:10.2337/db07-1785.

Turner RC, Cull CA, Frighi V, Holman RR, UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: progressive requirement for multiple therapies (UKPDS 49). JAMA 1999;281(21):2005-2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.281.21.2005.

Unik JL, Beavers D, Jakicic JM, Kitabhci AE, Knowler WC, Wadden TA, Wing RR, Look AHEAD Research Group. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2152-2157. doi: 10.2337/dc11-0874

Ward WK, LaCava EC, Paquette TL, Beard JC, Wallum BJ, Porte JrD. Disproportionate elevation of immunoreactive proinsulin in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and in experimental insulin resistance. Diabetologia 1987;30:698-702. doi: 10.1007/BF00296991.

Weir GC, Laybutt DR, Kaneto H, Bonner-Weir S, Sharma A. β-Cell adaptation and decompensation during the progression of diabetes. Diabetes 2001;50 (Suppl 1):S154 -S159. doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.2007.S154.

Weitgasser R, Lechleitner M, Luger A, Klingler A. Effects of glimepiride on HbA(1c) and body weight in type 2 diabetes: results of a 1/5-year follow up study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2003;61:13-19. doi: 10.1016/S0168-8227(02)00254-1.

Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999;104:787-794. doi:10.1172/JCI7231.

Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2009;301:1565-1572. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.460

Wirostko B, Wong TY, Simó R. Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic complications. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 2008;27(6):608-621. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2008.09.002.

Wolffenbuttel BH, Sels JP, Rondas-Colbers GJ, Menheere PP, Kruseman CAN. Comparison of different insulin regiments in elderly patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1326-1332. doi:10.2337/diacare.19.12.1326.

Wright A, Burden ACF, Paisey RB, Cull CA, Holman RR. Sulfonylurea inadequatecy. Efficacy of addition of insulin over 6 years in patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 57). Diabetes Care 2002; 25:330-336. doi:10.2337/diacare.25.2.330

Xu D, Zhao S-P, Huang Q-x, Wei D, Liu Y-h, Liu L, Xiao-mei Xie et al, Effects of glimepiride on metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in patience with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes research and clinical practice 2010;88:71-75. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2009.12.010.

Yki-Järvinen H, Ryysy L, Nikkilä K, Tulokas T, Vanamo R, Heikkilä M. Comparison of bedtime insulin regiments in patients with type diabetes mellitus. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:389-396. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-5-199903020-00002

Yki-Järvinen H. Combination therapies with insulin in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24:758-767. doi:10.2337/diacare.24.4.758.

Yokoyama H, Sone H, Yamada D, Honjo J, Haneda M. Contribution of glimepiride to basal-prandial insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice 2011;91:148-153. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.10.007.

Yu JG, Javorschi S, Hevener AL, Kruszynska YT, Norman RA, Sinha M, Olefsky JM. The effect of thiazolidinediones on plasma adiponectin levels in normal, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes 2002;51:2968-2974. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.10.2968.

Man'kovskiy B. N. Funktsiya β-kletok y vozmozhnye mekhanyzmy ee sokhraneniya pry lecheniy bol'nykh SD 2 typa. Zdorov'ya Ukrayiny. Medychna hazeta 2006;(141): 1-3.

Poltorak VV, Gorbenko NI, Gorshunska MY. Blokada K-ATF-kanaliv preparatamy sul'fonilsechovyny ta kardiovaskulyarna bezpeka u khvorykh na tsukrovyy diabet 2 typu. Ukrayins'kyy medychnyy chasopys 2002;(32): 65-78.

Poltorak VV, Kravchun NS, Gorshunska MY, Krasova NS. Hlymepyryd (Amaryl) v terapyy bol'nykh sakharnym dyabetom 2 typa (patofyzyolohycheskoe obosnovanye y klynycheskaya realyzatsyya. Mizhnarodnyy endokrynolohichnyy zhurnal 2014;(1):77-89.

Poltorak VV, Krasova NS, Gorshunska MY. Hlykemycheskaya pamyat' kak patohenetycheskoe osnovanye dlya formyrovanyya alhorytma sovremennoy antydyabetycheskoy terapyy. Mizhnarodnyy endokrynolohichnyy zhurnal 2014;(3):15-21.

Poltorak VV, Krasova NS, Gorshunska MY. Adyponektyn ta tsukrovyy diabet 2 typu (patohenetychni aspekty yak pidhruntya dlya optymizatsiyi antydiabetychnoyi farmakoterapiyi). Mizhnarodnyy endokrynolohichnyy zhurnal 2014;(5):95-104.

Poltorak VV, Krasova NS, Gorshunska MY. Sirtuiny kak perspektivnaja mishen' dlja profilaktiki i terapii saharnogo diabeta. Probl. Endokr. Patologii 2014(3):97-104.

Poltorak VV, Krasova NS, Gorshunska MY. Kombynyrovannaya terapyya «metformyn + hlymepyryd» u bol'nykh sakharnym dyabetom 2-ho typa (molekulyarnye mekhanyzmy optymyzatsyy reabylytyruyushcheho deystvyya). Mizhnarodnyy endokrynolohichnyy zhurnal 2015;(1):87-97.

Poltorak VV, Gorshunska MY, Zherdeva NN, Krasova NS. Amaryl® M SR: novaya forma vypuska, novye vozmozhnosty dlya patsyentov. Ukrayins'kyy medychnyy chasopys 2015;105:30-34.

Poltorak VV, Krasova NS, Gorshunska MY. Apoptoz pankreatycheskykh beta-kletok kak novaya myshen' dlya ynsulynoterapyy bol'nykh sakharnym dyabetom 1 y 2 typa. Probl. Endokr. Patologii 2015(1):90-102.

Tron'ko MD, Poltorak VV, Sokolova LK. Doslidzhennya ORIGIN (peredumovy, rezul'taty). Mizhnarodnyy endokrynolohichnyy zhurnal 2013;(49):15-22.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.4.68.2015.75016

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© "Publishing House "Zaslavsky", 1997-2017

 

 Яндекс.МетрикаSeo анализ сайта Рейтинг@Mail.ru