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To study the clinical correlations between diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and hyperplastic processes of the thyroid gland (TG), we conducted a survey of the participants of Chernobyl accident consequences elimination — 125 men aged 61.95 ± 0.66 years and 24 women aged 62.13 ± 1.34 years (group I), evacuees — 6 men aged 56.00 ± 6.45 years and 18 women aged 58.56 ± 2.07 years (group II), residents of contaminated territories — 32 men aged 59.69 ± 2.13 years and 67 women aged 58.39 ± 1.23 years (group III). The control group consisted of Kyiv residents — 18 men aged 59.00 ± 2.45 years and 34 women aged 57.88 ± 2.61 years diagnosed with DM type 2 and pathology of the TG. Results. The incidence of hyperplastic processes of the TG in patients with DM type 2, who suffered from the disaster, was higher among women (79.2 %) than among men — 45.6 % (χ2 = 9.078; p = 0.003), similarly to the group control — 55.9 and 16.7 %, respectively (χ2 = 7.415; p = 0.007), it was significantly higher among male victims of the accident than in the control group (χ2 = 5.41; p = 0.02). We had established a strong direct correlation between the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.799; p = 0.031), glycated hemoglobin (r = 0.999; p = 0.027) among men in the control group. During multivariate analysis, we have found the probable model of the duration of DM type 2 and development of hyperplastic processes in the TG (F = 6.6947; p = 0.00022) and its absence for other indicators, namely: BMI (F = 1.7351; p = 0.15969), TSH (F = 0.29968; p = 0.82559), the C-peptide (F = 0.09665; p = 0.96160) and glycated hemoglobin (F = 0.17955; p = 0.90996). Conclusions. In patients with DM type 2, who suffered from the Chornobyl disaster, the incidence of hyperplastic processes in the TG statistically significantly exceeds the rate in unirradiated individuals and depends on the gender, duration of the underlying disease and its decompensation.
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