Diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by COVID-19 in patient with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus

Main Article Content

E. Xhardo
P. Kapisyzi
A. Rada

Abstract

Background. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported frequently in patients with the new corona virus disease — 2019, COVID-19. It has been associated with progressive course and worse outcome. There is scarce data on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in COVID-19 infection. There has been several cases reported on COVID-19 infection precipitating a new diagnosis of type 2 DM (T2DM). However, there is a lack of evidence regarding type 1 DM (T1DM). We report a case of DKA precipitated by COVID-19 in a patient with newly diagnosed T1DM. Recently, case reports and small cross-sectional studies described diabetic patients who develop DKA when infected with COVID-19. The incidence of DKA has been found to be high in patients with T1DM and T2DM admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Case presentation. We present a 29 year-old, previously healthy man with 5 days history of fever, fatigue, vomiting, polydipsia and polyuria. His lab results showed high blood glucose, high anion gap metabolic acidosis and ketonuria diagnostic of DKA. He also tested positive for COVID-19 and his Chest CT was consistent with bilateral COVID 19 pneumonia (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and crazy-paving pattern). He was successfully managed with intravenous fluids and insulin as per DKA protocol. He required intravenous antibiotics, steroids and oxygenotherapy for COVID-19 pneumonia. He was discharged after 14 days in stable condition. Conclusions. COVID-19 infection can be complicated by DKA and development of DM in previously non-diabetic individuals. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate pancreatic beta cell function and precipitate DKA. Very few cases have been reported in the literature on COVID-19 infection precipitating DKA in a newly diagnosed patient of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Article Details

How to Cite
Xhardo, E., P. Kapisyzi, and A. Rada. “Diabetic Ketoacidosis Precipitated by COVID-19 in Patient With Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 17, no. 5, Oct. 2021, pp. 422-5, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.17.5.2021.241521.
Section
Clinical Case

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