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Background. Increased level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in plasma is associated with a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In addition to its potential cardioprotective function, HDL and ApoA1, the main HDL apolipoprotein, also have antidiabetic properties. The aim of the study was to determine the level of ApoA1 in the blood of patients (n = 81) with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19. Materials and methods. ApoA1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (Elabscience, USA). The measurements were performed at an optical density of 450 nm. Results. ApoA1 level in the blood of patients with diabetes and especially with COVID-19 was significantly lower than in healthy people. The study of the dependence of plasma ApoA1 content on the level of Hb1Ac, the gender and the type of diabetes showed that in blood of patients with type 2 diabetes the amount of ApoA1 is lower than in those with type 1 diabetes, and with an increase in the level of Hb1Ac the amount of ApoA1 decreases. There was also significant gender difference. With an increase in the body mass index, the content of ApoA1 in blood plasma decreases below normal — 0.9 g/L, and at body mass index < 25 kg/m2, the amount of ApoA1 is significantly higher than the average lipoprotein level in diabetic patients. In individuals with newly diagnosed diabetes, the level of ApoA1 is significantly higher, and in patients with more than 10 years of illness, it is below average and below normal. Biguanide treatment, either in combination with other drugs (mainly insulin) or as monothe-
rapy, does not significantly affect the level of ApoA1 compared to the entire group average. In patients treated with sulfonylurea, the level of ApoA1 is significantly lower than the average level for the group and the norm.
A significant positive effect on the amount of ApoA1 in plasma was observed in people treated with a combination of drugs with sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors, insulin and especially dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. However, insulin monotherapy did not significantly affect the ApoA1 content. Possible mechanisms of ApoA1 decrease in COVID-19 and diabetes are discussed. Conclusions. Thus, the level of ApoA1 may be one of the promising markers of severe COVID-19.
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