Antithyroid autoantibodies in extrathyroid autoimmune diseases

Main Article Content

T.V. Sorokman
M.G. Gingulyak
O.V. Makarova

Abstract

This review summarizes data on the incidence of autoimmune diseases and examines the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies in extrathyroid autoimmune diseases. In the world, about 5–7 % of the population suffers from one or another type of autoimmune diseases. Among the six most common autoimmune diseases, thyroid and associated diseases predominate. The high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases raises questions about the potential role of antithyroid antibodies in the course of extrathyroid autoimmune diseases. It is believed that autoimmune di­seases are the result of interactions between triggers, autoantigens, genetic predisposition, impaired tolerance of autoantigens and mechanisms of apoptosis. Among the currently known antithyroid autoantibodies, antibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyroid peroxi­dase (TPO), as well as bispecific autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase are of particular importance. Categories of functionally significant autoantibodies that mimic hormone function and provoke the development of autoimmune pathology as a result of binding to the receptor and subsequent stimulation of thyrocytes include antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (rTSH-Ab). Circulating antibodies against thyroid antigens are not limited to autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, but are also found in other autoimmune diseases, most often in rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. The association with other immune pathologies further confirms that TPO antibodies were also detected in 15 % of patients with asthma, in 10–29 % of those with idiopathic purpura and vitiligo. The prevalence of TPO antibodies is slightly higher than TgAb, and rTSH-Ab are rarely registered in non-thyroid immunological diseases.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sorokman, T., M. Gingulyak, and O. Makarova. “Antithyroid Autoantibodies in Extrathyroid Autoimmune Diseases”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 17, no. 3, June 2021, pp. 234-40, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.17.3.2021.232653.
Section
Original Researches

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