Main Article Content
This review summarizes data on the incidence of autoimmune diseases and examines the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies in extrathyroid autoimmune diseases. In the world, about 5–7 % of the population suffers from one or another type of autoimmune diseases. Among the six most common autoimmune diseases, thyroid and associated diseases predominate. The high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases raises questions about the potential role of antithyroid antibodies in the course of extrathyroid autoimmune diseases. It is believed that autoimmune diseases are the result of interactions between triggers, autoantigens, genetic predisposition, impaired tolerance of autoantigens and mechanisms of apoptosis. Among the currently known antithyroid autoantibodies, antibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), as well as bispecific autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase are of particular importance. Categories of functionally significant autoantibodies that mimic hormone function and provoke the development of autoimmune pathology as a result of binding to the receptor and subsequent stimulation of thyrocytes include antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (rTSH-Ab). Circulating antibodies against thyroid antigens are not limited to autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, but are also found in other autoimmune diseases, most often in rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. The association with other immune pathologies further confirms that TPO antibodies were also detected in 15 % of patients with asthma, in 10–29 % of those with idiopathic purpura and vitiligo. The prevalence of TPO antibodies is slightly higher than TgAb, and rTSH-Ab are rarely registered in non-thyroid immunological diseases.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Tolentino Júnior DS, de Oliveira CM, de Assis EM. Population-based Study of 24 Autoimmune Diseases Carried Out in a Brazilian Microregion. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2019 Dec;9(4):243-251. doi:10.2991/jegh.k.190920.001.
Leso V, Vetrani I, De Cicco L, et al. The Impact of Thyroid Diseases on the Working Life of Patients: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 16;17(12):4295. doi:10.3390/ijerph17124295.
Cooper GS, Bynum ML, Somers EC. Recent insights in the epidemiology of autoimmune diseases: improved prevalence estimates and understanding of clustering of diseases. J Autoimmun. 2009 Nov-Dec;33(3-4):197-207. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2009.09.008.
Sisó-Almirall A, Kostov B, Martínez-Carbonell E, et al. The prevalence of 78 autoimmune diseases in Catalonia (MASCAT-PADRIS Big Data Project). Autoimmun Rev. 2020 Feb;19(2):102448. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2019.102448.
Tronko MD, Brenner AV, Olijnyk VA, et al. Autoimmune thyroiditis and exposure to iodine 131 in the Ukrainian cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: results from the first screening cycle (1998-2000). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4344-51. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-0498.
Krishna MT, Subramanian A, Adderley NJ, Zemedikun DT, Gkoutos GV, Nirantharakumar K. Allergic diseases and long-term risk of autoimmune disorders: longitudinal cohort study and cluster analysis. Eur Respir J. 2019 Nov 14;54(5):1900476. doi:10.1183/13993003.00476-2019.
Bartalena L, Masiello E, Magri F, et al. The phenotype of newly diagnosed Graves' disease in Italy in recent years is milder than in the past: results of a large observational longitudinal study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Dec;39(12):1445-1451. doi:10.1007/s40618-016-0516-7.
Fallahi P, Ferrari SM, Ruffilli I, et al. The association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Review of the literature and report of a large series of patients. Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Dec;15(12):1125-1128. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2016.09.009.
Latrofa F, Ricci D, Grasso L, et al. Characterization of thyroglobulin epitopes in patients with autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid diseases using recombinant human monoclonal thyroglobulin autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;93(2):591-6. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-1199.
Subekti I, Boedisantoso A, Moeloek ND, Waspadji S, Mansyur M. Association of TSH receptor antibody, thyroid stimulating antibody, and thyroid blocking antibody with clinical activity score and degree of severity of Graves ophthalmopathy. Acta Med Indones. 2012 Apr;44(2):114-21.
Diana T, Kahaly GJ. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Thyroid Eye Disease-Methodology and Clinical Applications. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Jul/Aug;34(4S Suppl 1):S13-S19. doi:10.1097/IOP.0000000000001053.
Xie LD, Gao Y, Li MR, Lu GZ, Guo XH. Distribution of immunoglobulin G subclasses of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody in sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis with different thyroid functional status. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Nov;154(2):172-6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03756.x.
Liu C, Hermsen D, Domberg J, et al. Comparison of M22-based ELISA and human-TSH-receptor-based luminescence assay for the measurement of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in patients with thyroid diseases. Horm Metab Res. 2008 Jul;40(7):479-83. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1077051.
Li Y, Teng D, Guan H, et al. Dynamic Changes in Antithyroperoxidase and Antithyroglobulin Antibodies Suggest an Increased Risk for Abnormal Thyrotropin Levels. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Aug 4;11:521. doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.00521.
Hutfless S, Matos P, Talor MV, Caturegli P, Rose NR. Significance of prediagnostic thyroid antibodies in women with autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep;96(9):E1466-71. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0228.
Li L, Liu S, Yu J. Autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: same pathogenesis; new perspective? Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Sep 14;11:2042018820958329. doi:10.1177/2042018820958329.
Hatzioannou A, Kanistras I, Mantzou E, et al. Effect of Advanced Glycation End Products on Human Thyroglobulin's Antigenicity as Identified by the Use of Sera from Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:849615. doi:10.1155/2015/849615.
Mihailova S, Ivanova M, Mihaylova A, Quin L, Mikova O, Naumova E. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphism profiles in Bulgarian multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Nov;168(1-2):138-43. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2005.06.020.
Samareh Fekri M, Shokoohi M, Gozashti MH, et al. Association between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and asthma in women. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012 Sep;11(3):241-5. doi:10.1016/j.ejcdt.2015.08.018.
Woo YJ, Jang SY, Lim TH, Yoon JS. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2015 Aug;29(4):213-9. doi:10.3341/kjo.2015.29.4.213.
Chiarella G, Tognini S, Nacci A, et al. Vestibular disorders in euthyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: role of thyroid autoimmunity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Oct;81(4):600-5. doi:10.1111/cen.12471.
Plowden TC, Schisterman EF, Sjaarda LA, et al. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity Are Not Associated With Fecundity, Pregnancy Loss, or Live Birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jun;101(6):2358-65. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-1049.
Busnelli A, Paffoni A, Fedele L, Somigliana E. The impact of thyroid autoimmunity on IVF/ICSI outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2016 Nov;22(6):775-790. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmw019.