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This review article summarizes the existing literature on the current state of the problem of diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. According to the World Health Organization, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, after obesity, are among the leading cardiovascular risk factors that are most common among the world’s population. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of hypertension has decreased to a quarter of the world’s population, but the incidence of diabetes mellitus has increased from 4.7 to 8.5 %, and the forecast for the future indicates a further dramatic increase. Improving awareness, treatment and control of these diseases is a major goal of the global health system. The prevalence of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is up to three times higher than in patients without diabetes mellitus, and the combination of hypertension and diabetes mellitus significantly increases the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. The unfavorable relationship between these two conditions, accelerating the processes of atherosclerosis, can cause negative pathophysiological changes in the cardiovascular system. Also, it is known that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, resulting from damage to the autonomic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, is a significant complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in the presence of systemic hypertension. In particular, the issues related to common pathophysiological mechanisms, main systemic and metabolic factors that may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus and hypertension comorbidity are analyzed. Classification, features of diagnosis of arterial hypertension, assessment of the disorders of the organs mediated by arterial hypertension are presented. Issues related to the main approaches of arterial hypertension treatment in diabetes mellitus are analyzed, namely prescription of the inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, calcium channel blockers, thiazide, and thiazide-like diuretics, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, alpha-blockers, mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists as well as the features of combined therapy and treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.
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