Main Article Content
A review of the literature and the author’s own reflections are devoted to the issues of detecting various forms of pathology, which, being often benign, could exist for a long time, if not all life. The author proposes a definition of the term. Adrenal incidentaloma is a combined working category (group) that includes various forms of adrenal pathology, mainly neoplastic, benign or malignant, with or without signs of hormonal activity, as well as formations of inflammatory, infectious, parasitic origin, the consequences of trauma, developmental abnormalities that are found accidentally when examining patients for extra-adrenal diseases. The epidemiological aspects of the adrenal incidentalomas are considered. Basically, these are tumors of the adrenal cortex or medulla, tumor-like formations (cyst, inflammatory “tumor”, hematoma). Adrenal incidentalomas are accidentally found during examination of persons with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, retroperitoneal space, kidneys, spine, chest, and small pelvis. Another source of adrenal incidentaloma detection is autopsy systemic data and, rarely, abdominal surgeries. The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas reaches 2–6 %. The most objective data can be obtained from autopsy materials. The frequency of adrenal incidentalomas found in vivo depends on the type of imaging techniques used (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), age, features of the surveyed populations, the presence of concomitant diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc.), and the qualifications of the researcher. Recently, clinical guidelines proposing a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm have been published to help in clinical practice; however, several areas are still debatable and require further studies.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Prinz RA, Brooks MH, Churchill R, Graner JL, Lawrence AM, Paloyan E, Sparagana M. Incidental asymptomatic adrenal masses detected by computed tomographic scanning. Is operation required? JAMA. 1982 Aug 13;248(6):701-4. doi:10.1001/jama.1982.03330060041031.
Mansmann G, Lau J, Balk E, Rothberg M, Miyachi Y, Bornstein SR. The clinically inapparent adrenal mass: update in diagnosis and management. Endocr Rev. 2004 Apr;25(2):309-40. doi:10.1210/er.2002-0031.
Linos, DA. Clinically inapparent adrenal mass (Incidentaloma or Adrenaloma). In: Linos DA, van Heerden JA, editors. Adrenal glands. Diagnostic aspects and surgical therapy. Berlin: Springer; 2005. 241-250pp.
Lewinsky BS, Grigor KM, Symington T, Neville AM. The clinical and pathologic features of "non-hormonal" adrenocortical tumors. Report of twenty new cases and review of the literature. Cancer. 1974 Mar;33(3):778-90. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197403)33:3<778::aid-cncr2820330325>3.0.co;2-t.
Kobayashi S, Iwase H, Matsuo K, Fukuoka H, Ito Y, Masaoka A. Primary adrenocortical tumors in autopsy records--a survey of "Cumulative Reports in Japan" from 1973 to 1984. Jpn J Surg. 1991 Sep;21(5):494-8. doi:10.1007/BF02470984.
Glazer HS, Weyman PJ, Sagel SS, Levitt RG, McClennan BL. Nonfunctioning adrenal masses: incidental discovery on computed tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Jul;139(1):81-5. doi:10.2214/ajr.139.1.81.
Davenport E, Lang Ping Nam P, Wilson M, Reid A, Aspinall S. Adrenal incidentalomas: management in British district general hospitals. Postgrad Med J. 2014 Jul;90(1065):365-9. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-132386.
Maher DI, Williams E, Grodski S, Serpell JW, Lee JC. Adrenal incidentaloma follow-up is influenced by patient, radiologic, and medical provider factors: A review of 804 cases. Surgery. 2018 Dec;164(6):1360-1365. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2018.07.011.
Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW. The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 May;190(5):1163-8. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.2799.
Mantero F, Terzolo M, Arnaldi G, et al. A survey on adrenal incidentaloma in Italy. Study Group on Adrenal Tumors of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85(2):637-44. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.2.6372.
Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Otto M, Cichocki A, et al. Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: a lesson from observation of 1,444 patients. Horm Metab Res. 2008 May;40(5):338-41. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1073167.
Hong AR, Kim JH, Park KS, et al. Optimal follow-up strategies for adrenal incidentalomas: reappraisal of the 2016 ESE-ENSAT guidelines in real clinical practice. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;177(6):475-483. doi:10.1530/EJE-17-0372.
Cyranska-Chyrek E, Szczepanek-Parulska E, Olejarz M, Ruchala M. Malignancy Risk and Hormonal Activity of Adrenal Incidentalomas in a Large Cohort of Patients from a Single Tertiary Reference Center. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 27;16(10):1872. doi:10.3390/ijerph16101872.
Grumbach MM, Biller BM, Braunstein GD, et al. Management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass ("incidentaloma"). Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 4;138(5):424-9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-138-5-200303040-00013.