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Background. Determination of the blood lymphocyte immunophenotype is one of the key indicators of the immune function in a diseased person. However, the studies of the lymphocyte immunophenotyping in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with the most frequent complication of this disease — overweight/obesity, are rare and controversial. The purpose of study was to determine immunophenotype of blood lymphocytes (CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD20+ and CD56+ cells) in patients with newly diagnosed T2D and different body mass index (BMI). Materials and methods. There were examined 78 patients with newly diagnosed T2D and 40 normoglycemic individuals, who were divided into 4 subgroups, depending on the BMI. The blood lymphocyte immunophenotyping was carried out by the flow cytometry using a FACStar Plus laser cytofluorimeter and a panel of monoclonal antibodies to membrane antigens of lymphocytes. Results. The entire group of patients with T2D is characterized by a small but significant (p < 0.05) increase in the absolute number of CD4+ T cells compared to the group of normoglycemic individuals. When dividing the examined patients into 4 subgroups, depending on the BMI: 1) ≤ 25.5 kg/m2, 2) 25.9–29.9 kg/m2, 3) 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, 4) > 35.0 kg/m2, it was found that in subgroup 1, the absolute number of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD20+ and CD56+ cells was close to those in normoglycemic individuals. Patients of subgroup 2 showed a significant increase in the absolute number of CD4+ T cells by 12.5 % (p < 0.05). In subgroup 3, there was an increase in the absolute number of CD4+ T cells by 29.2 % (p < 0.001). Patients of subgroup 4 with morbid obesity, especially women, had an increase in the absolute numbers of CD3+ T cells by 12.4 % (p < 0.01), CD4+ T cells — by 47.7 % (p < 0.001) and CD8+ T cells — by 26.2 % (p < 0.001). A similar increase in the absolute number of CD4+ T cells, depending on BMI, was also noted in normoglycemic individuals, but was less pronounced. Conclusions. Patients with newly diagnosed T2D are characterized by an increased content of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood, especially CD3+T and CD4+T cells, which is most pronounced with a concomitant obesity.
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