The state of iodine supply of prepubertal children living in the Northern Bukovina

Main Article Content

T.V. Sorokman
M.I. Bachu
M.G. Gingulyak


Background. In Bukovina, depending on climatic and geographical zones, there is a mild and moderate degree of iodine deficiency. Assessment of urinary inorganic iodine excretion allows monitoring of the epidemiological situation regarding the severity of iodine deficiency in the region. The purpose was to assess the indicators of ioduria in prepubertal children living in the Northern Bukovina (Chernivtsi region). Materials and methods. As part of a 20-cluster analysis of the prevalence of goiter among the pediatric population of Chernivtsi region, 1,973 children aged 7 to 12 years were examined and the concentration of inorganic iodine in a single portion of urine was determined in 197 children. The obtained results were processed by the method of statistical variation and correlation analysis. Results. Manual palpation examination showed a significant incidence of goiter among children in Bukovina — 17.6 %. Thyromegaly among children of the reference group occurred in 15.1 % of cases. The median ioduria in the examined population is generally 60.4 μg/l. The average prevalence of iodine deficiency was 59.70 ± 1.82 %, the incidence of severe iodine deficiency did not exceed 5.22 ± 1.30 %. Analyzing the degree of iodine supply of children depending on the geographical areas of residence, we conclude that children li­ving in the plains and children from Chernivtsi have mild iodine deficiency (median ioduria is 72.2 and 70.4 μg/l, respectively), and children from mountainous areas — moderate iodine deficiency (median ioduria is 42.9 μg/l). The average prevalence of iodine deficiency was 59.70 ± 1.82 %, and excessive iodine in the urine — 18.70 ± 2.49 %. Moreover, the incidence of severe iodine deficiency did not exceed 5.22 ± 1.30 %. Conclusions. In most children living in Northern Bukovina, the median ioduria is reduced. In 18.7 % of children, the iodine content is more than 300 μg/l, which requires further monitoring.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sorokman, T., M. Bachu, and M. Gingulyak. “The State of Iodine Supply of Prepubertal Children Living in the Northern Bukovina”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 16, no. 8, Apr. 2021, pp. 708-12, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.16.8.2020.222893.
Original Researches


Angermayr L, Clar C. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003819. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003819.pub2.

Pearce EN, Andersson M, Zimmermann MB. Global iodine nutrition: Where do we stand in 2013? Thyroid. 2013 May;23(5):523-528. doi:10.1089/thy.2013.0128.

Ahmed M, Zama SY, Nagarajarao V, Khan MA. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India. J Family Community Med. 2014 Jan;21(1):48-52. doi:10.4103/2230-8229.128783.

Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency and excess in children: worldwide status in 2013. Endocr Pract. 2013 Sep-Oct;19(5):839-846. doi:10.4158/EP13180.RA.

Hu Q, Xie Z, Wang X, Yu J, Zhang Y. Methyl iodine over oceans from the Arctic Ocean to the maritime Antarctic. Sci Rep. 2016 May 17;6:26007. doi:10.1038/srep26007.

Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA. et al. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. Thyroid. 2017;27(3):315-389. doi:10.1089/thy.2016.0457.correx.

Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev. 2009 Jun;30(4):376-408. doi:10.1210/er.2009-0011.

Fereja M, Gebremedhin S, Gebreegziabher T, Girma M, Stoecker BJ. Prevalence of iodine deficiency and associated factors among pregnant women in Ada district, Oromia region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 Jun 25;18(1):257. doi:10.1186/s12884-018-1905-z.

Vargas-Uricoechea H, Pinzón-Fernández MV, Bastidas-Sánchez BE, Jojoa-Tobar E, Ramírez-Bejarano LE, Murillo-Palacios J. Iodine Status in the Colombian Population and the Impact of Universal Salt Iodization: A Double-Edged Sword? J Nutr Metab. 2019 Apr 1;2019:6239243. doi:10.1155/2019/6239243.

Shan Z, Chen L, Lian X, et al. Iodine Status and Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders After Introduction of Mandatory Universal Salt Iodization for 16 Years in China: A Cross-Sectional Study in 10 Cities. Thyroid. 2016 Aug;26(8):1125-1130. doi:10.1089/thy.2015.0613.

Sun D, Codling K, Chang S, et al. Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications. Nutrients. 2017 Apr 5;9(4):361. doi:10.3390/nu9040361.

Mohammadi M, Mianabadi F, Mehrad-Majd H. Circulating visfatin levels and cancers risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Apr;234(4):5011-5022. doi:10.1002/jcp.27302.

Pasyechko NV, Chukur OO, Krytskyy TI, Bob AO. Iodine status of children and women of reproductive age in the Western region of Ukraine. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2019;15(7):541-547. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.15.7.2019.186057.

Pankiv VI. Problem of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the development of thyroid pathology. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2014;(61):75-80. doi:10.22141/2224-0721.5.61.2014.76859. (in Russian).

Restini LAO, Dessordi R, Ferreira SMS, et al. Assessment of thyroid function, ioduria and oxidative stress in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Nutr Hosp. 2018 Dec 3;35(6):1387-1393. doi:10.20960/nh.1653.

Tarqui-Mamani C, Alvarez-Dongo D, Fernández-Tinco I. Ioduria and iodine concentration in table salt in Peruvian elementary schoolchildren. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016 Oct-Dec;33(4):689-694. doi:10.17843/rpmesp.2016.334.2552. (in Spanish).

Iodine Global Network (IGN). The Iodine Global Network: 2018 Annual Report. Ottawa, Canada: IGN; 2019. 36 p.

Kun IZ, Szanto Z, Balazs J, Nasalean A, Glida K. Detection of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (Goiter and Hypothyroidism) in School-Children Living in Endemic Mountainous Regions, After the Implementation of Universal Salt Iodization. In: Fedele M, editor. Hot Topics in Endocrine and Endocrine-Related Diseases. London, UK: INTECH; 2013. 101-128 pp. doi:10.5772/54188.

Lebădă IC, Stanciu M, Frum A, Totoian IG. Evaluation of iodate status in a group of children with stature delay from Sibiu county. Acta Medica Transilvanica. 2019;24(4):8-11. doi:10.2478/amtsb-2019-0003.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>