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Autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and immune disorders contribute to its development. With regard to nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake and deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. To elucidate the role of nutritional factors in the risk, pathogenesis, and treatment of AT, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for publications on iodine, iron, selenium, and vitamin D and risk/treatment of AT. Chronic exposure to excess iodine intake induces autoimmune thyroiditis, partly because highly iodinated thyroglobulin (Tg) is more immunogenic. Selenoproteins are essential to thyroid action. There is evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials that selenium/selenoproteins can reduce thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibody titers, hypothyroidism, and postpartum thyroiditis. AT patients are frequently iron deficient, since autoimmune gastritis, which impairs iron absorption, is a common co-morbidity. In recent years, evidence has emerged pointing to various roles for vitamin D, including, proliferation and differentiation of normal and cancer cells, cardiovascular function, and immunomodulation. Vitamin D deficiency has been especially demonstrated in AT patients. Lower vitamin D status has been found in AT patients than in controls, and inverse relationships of serum vitamin D with TPO/Tg antibodies have been reported. Adequate selenium intake is vital in areas of iodine deficiency/excess, and in regions of low selenium intake a supplement of 50–100 μg/day of selenium may be appropriate. Myo-inositol and selenium are able to restore the euthyroid state as well as improve the wellbeing of AT with subclinical hypothyroidism. Bearing in mind also the safety of these two molecules’ usage, accentuated by the absence of side effects, the Myo-Ins-Se combination can be considered a very efficacious and safe therapy for AT treatment.
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