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Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. It was shown that endothelial dysfunction is one of the key pathological events in the development of chronic vascular diabetic complications. An important effect of endothelial dysfunction is that it increases the production and biological activity of the potent vasoconstrictor and the pro-inflammatory peptide — endothelin (ET). Metformin is used in the treatment of T2DM as a first-line medication. It has been shown that the mechanism of action of metformin may be associated with biochemical processes in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used as a marker in the diagnosis of heart failure. The purpose of this work was to determine and compare ET-1, NT-proBNP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) blood levels in diabetic patients treated with metformin. Materials and methods. NT-proBNP, GLP-1, endothelin-1 and glycated hemoglobin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To compare the data groups, Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results. The content of ET-1 in the blood of patients with T2DM significantly exceeds its concentration in the control samples. Monotherapy with metformin leads to a decrease in ET-1 levels by more than 65 %. The combination therapy of metformin with insulin causes even greater decrease in ET-1. The blood level of GLP-1 in patients with T2DM is significantly, more than 2 times, reduced compared to healthy people. After metformin treatment, the content of GLP-1 is increased to the control level. The concentration of NT-proBNP in the blood of diabetic patients more than 2 times exceeds the control values. Treatment with metformin leads to a decrease in the content of natriuretic peptide by more than 40 %. Conclusions. Thus, treatment with metformin causes a decrease in ET-1 and NT-proBNP concentrations, and an increase in blood GLP-1 of patients with type 2 diabetes. These events together may indicate a positive protective effect of metformin on the cardiovascular system.
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