Peculiarities of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Immunocorrection (part 1)
Keywords:autoimmune thyroid diseases, NK cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, oxidative stress, Th17, Treg, Breg lymphocytes, cytokines, apoptosis, anti-thyroid antibodies, immunomodulatory effects, review
AbstractThe review deals with the role of innate and adaptive, local and systemic immunity, cellular and humoral factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). The importance of lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland, cytokines and autoantibodies, the role of thyroid hormones as modulators of the immune response, trace elements and dysregulation of apoptosis in the development of AITD is considered. Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) have been shown to be closely pathophysiologically related and have similar immune-mediated mechanisms, such as the production of autoantibodies to thyroid antigens and lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland. Loss of immune tolerance to thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone autoantigens is the basis for the development of AITD. Emphasis is placed on the role of cytokines, which are produced by both immune system cells and thyroid follicular cells. Imbalance between Th17 lymphocytes and regulatory T cells (Treg) has a significant effect on the progression of AITD. An increase in Th17 lymphocytes may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of HT, whereas a decrease in Treg may be strongly involved in GD. Insufficiency of Treg that impairs immunological tolerance and causes abnormal cytokine production can lead to the initiation of apoptosis, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of GD and HT. Induction of apoptosis by HT leads to destruction of thyrocytes, while apoptosis in GD cause damage to thyroid infiltrating lymphocytes.
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