Blood leukocyte composition and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus depending on the degree of overweight/obesity
Keywords:type 2 diabetes mellitus, immunity, inflammation, blood leukocyte composition
AbstractBackground. According to the current hypothesis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is chronic low-gradient inflammation. Almost 80 % of patients with type 2 diabetes are obese. However, such important biomarkers of inflammation as the leukocyte composition of the blood and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with newly diagnosed type T2DM and varying degrees of obesity remain poorly understood. The purpose was to study the leukocyte composition and the index of inflammation NLR in non-hematological patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, depending on different body weights. Materials and methods. The study involved 108 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM aged 40–70 years and 50 normoglycemic individuals with different body mass index (BMI). The total number of blood leukocytes was determined using a hematological analyzer, and the leukocyte composition was determined both with an analyzer and in blood smears stained according to the Pappenheim staining method using a cacodylate buffer (Ph 6.85) per 200 identified cells. The index of inflammation NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. Results. Compared to healthy people, T2DM patients are characterized by a small but significant (p < 0.05) increase in the total number of leukocytes, the absolute number of neutrophils and monocytes, and the index of inflammation NLR. When dividing the entire group of T2DM patients and healthy individuals into four subgroups, depending on the body weight, it was found that leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, and the NLR index in patients with T2DM correlated with the BMI value. At BMI ≤ 25.5 kg/m2, the number of leukocytes in T2DM patients compared with those in healthy individuals was increased by 11.5 %, neutrophils by 20.7 % (p = 0.007), monocytes by 11.1 %, and the NLR index by 19.4 %. With a BMI of 25.9–29.9 kg/m2, the number of leukocytes was increased by 19.2 %, neutrophils by 27.6 %, monocytes by 38.8 %, and the NLR index by 29.7 %. With a BMI of 30.0–34.9 kg/m2, the number of leukocytes was significantly increased by 48.1 %, neutrophils by 58.6 %, monocytes by 105 %, and the index NLR by 32.6 %; and with BMI > 35 kg/m2, leukocytes were increased by 67.3 %, neutrophils by 93 %, monocytes by 97 %, and the index of inflammation NLR by 54.9 %. In healthy individuals, similar changes were observed depending on the leukocyte composition and BMI but less pronounced. Conclusions. The level of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, and the index of inflammation NLR in T2DM patients also largely depends on their body weight, especially obesity. In obesity, the inflammatory process is intensified by summing factors specific to the pathogenesis of T2DM and overweight, this must be taken into account when choosing therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, complicated by obesity.
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