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It is known that overweight leads to a number of chronic diseases and affects life expectancy. From 1975 to 2016, the prevalence of overweight in adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) increased from almost 21 % in men and 24 % in women to about 40 % in people of both sexes, and the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) quadrupled in men, from 3 to 12 %, and more than doubled in women, from 7 to 16 %. In 2012, overweight was found in approximately 3.9 % of all cancer patients (544,300 cases), ranging from 1 % in low-income countries to 8 % in some high-income Western countries. Recent decades have shown an increase in the population with overweight and a simultaneous increase in the incidence of malignancies, including thyroid cancer. All researchers reporting association between obesity and thyroid cancer are unanimous in calling for further researches that will lead to an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this link. To date, possible mechanisms of development are assessed as complex and include numerous factors at both the systemic and cellular levels. Disorders of insulin metabolism, adipokines, inflammatory processes and sex hormones contribute to the influence of obesity on the development of cancer and its progression. The results of the review of the researches allow drawing a conclusion about existence of connection between overweight and the increased risk of tumor process, including development of thyroid cancer. At the same time, the presence of various hypotheses about the pathophysiological mechanisms and patterns of the relationship between obesity and the tumor development, most likely, indicates the multifactorial nature of this process and encourages its further in-depth study.
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