The role of vitamin D deficiency in the origin of vasovagal syncope in childhood
Background. Recent scientific findings suggest that vitamin D may play a mediated or, in some cases, a direct role in the pathogenesis of vasovagal syncope in children. The purpose of the research was to study the levels of vitamin D in the blood serum of children with vasovagal syncope. Materials and methods. The main group consisted of 30 patients aged 8–17 years with at least one episode of vasovagal syncope during the last month. The control group included 24 apparently healthy children. 25(OH)D in the blood serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Monobind test system (USA). Vitamin D status assessment was performed according to practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe: deficiency — < 20 ng/ml; suboptimal level (insufficiency) — 20–30 ng/ml; optimal concentration — 30–50 ng/ml; high level — 50–100 ng/ml; dangerous concentration — > 100 ng/ml. Results. Children of the two groups were comparable in terms of demographic and clinical parameters. It helped eliminate the effect of gender, underweight and overweight, obesity or hypertension on 25(OH)D serum level. 25(OH)D in the vasovagal syncope group was 19.17 ± 1.33 ng/ml that was significantly lower compared to healthy children — 30.91 ± 1.20 ng/ml (p = 0.000001). Optimal concentration of vitamin D was recorded only in 6.7 % of patients with vasovagal syncope, whereas insufficiency and deficiency — in 33.3 and 60.0 %, respectively. Values of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase in children of both groups did not differ (p > 0.05). Conclusions. There is a significant decrease in serum level of 25(OH)D in 93.3 % of children with vasovagal syncope. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is 60.0 %, and suboptimal level of 25(OH)D was observed in 33.3 % of cases. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with maintaining traditional indicators of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis within the reference values.
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