Does the name “diffuse toxic goiter” reflect the structural state of the thyroid gland in this nosology?
Background. Diffuse toxic goiter (DTG), or Graves’ disease, is an autoimmune thyroid disease, the prevalence of which is steadily increasing in the structure of thyroid pathology and makes up about 80 % of all causes of hyperthyroidism. The purpose of our work was to study the structural state of the thyroid gland in patients with DTG. Materials and methods. Important aspect of the work was the cytological study of the structure of focal formations against the background of DTG (Graves’ disease). The study was conducted in the clinic of the State Institution “V.P. Komisarenko Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine” and in the Kyiv City Center of Endocrine Surgery at the premises of Kyiv City Clinical Hospital 3. A total of 310 patients with a diagnosis of DTG were examined: 285 (91.94 %) women and 25 (8.06 %) men. Their age ranged from 19 to 70 years (on average 41.25 ± 1.19 years). The duration of the disease at the start of the examination was from 1 month to 15 years (on average 25.09 ± 2.76 months). To determine the volume and structure of the thyroid gland, palpation and ultrasound examinations were performed, as well as a fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological examination of punctate, and computer tomography of the neck and mediastinum organs. To establish/confirm the diagnosis, a hormonal examination was performed (serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free T3 and free T4, as well as thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies were measured). Results. The ratio of patients with diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland without focal formations accounted for 78.39 %, the number of individuals without an increase in thyroid volume was 2.58 %, and 19.03 % of people had focal formations. Among patients with focal formations, those with benign adenomatous (54.24 %) and colloid nodules (25.42 %) prevailed. Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 patients with DTG (3.39 %). Computed tomography of the neck and mediastinum organs made it possible to establish that even with relatively small sizes of diffuse goiter (18.00 ± 2.78 cm3), there was a high probability of a significant retrotracheal portion of the thyroid gland. Conclusions. The use of the name “Graves’ disease” to identify this pathology is more appropriate because it facilitates the formulation of a complete diagnosis and communication with Western colleagues.
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