Main Article Content
The article reviews modern information on epidemiology and risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease in obesity. The literature data on the main pathogenetic links of the development of neurodegenerative disorders in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome are analyzed, as well as the mechanisms of mutual burden. The article deals with the results of clinical studies on the possibilities of pathogenetic correction of cognitive disorders in Alzheimer’s disease, which runs on the background of obesity.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
World Population Review. Most Obese Countries 2020. Available from: http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/most-obese-countries/.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet. 2017;390(10113):2627–2642. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3.
World Health Organization. Dementia. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia.
Barron AM, Rosario ER, Elteriefi R, Pike CJ. Sex-specific effects of high fat diet on indices of metabolic syndrome in 3xTg-AD mice: implications for Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78554. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078554.
Julien C, Tremblay C, Phivilay A, et al. High-fat diet aggravates amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31(9):1516–1531. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.08.022.
Knight EM, Martins IV, Gümüsgöz S, Allan SM, Lawrence CB. High-fat diet-induced memory impairment in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice is independent of changes in amyloid and tau pathology. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35(8):1821–1832. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.02.010.
Xu WL, Atti AR, Gatz M, Pedersen NL, Johansson B, Fratiglioni L. Midlife overweight and obesity increase late-life dementia risk: a population-based twin study. Neurology. 2011;76(18):1568–1574. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182190d09.
Profenno LA, Porsteinsson AP, Faraone SV. Meta-analysis of Alzheimer's disease risk with obesity, diabetes, and related disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67(6):505–512. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.013.
Luchsinger JA, Cheng D, Tang MX, Schupf N, Mayeux R. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012;26(2):101–105. doi:10.1097/WAD.0b013e318222f0d4.
Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Shipley M, et al. Obesity trajectories and risk of dementia: 28 years of follow-up in the Whitehall II Study. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14(2):178–186. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2017.06.2637.
Anstey KJ, Cherbuin N, Budge M, Young J. Body mass index in midlife and late-life as a risk factor for dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Obes Rev. 2011;12(5):e426–e437. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00825.x.
Lee CM, Woodward M, Batty GD, et al. Association of anthropometry and weight change with risk of dementia and its major subtypes: A meta-analysis consisting 2.8 million adults with 57 294 cases of dementia. Obes Rev. 2020;10.1111/obr.12989. doi:10.1111/obr.12989.
Li XY, Zhang M, Xu W, et al. Midlife Modifiable Risk Factors for Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 34 Prospective Cohort Studies. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2019;16(14):1254–1268. doi:10.2174/1567205017666200103111253.
Silva MVF, Loures CMG, Alves LCV, de Souza LC, Borges KBG, Carvalho MDG. Alzheimer's disease: risk factors and potentially protective measures. J Biomed Sci. 2019;26(1):33. doi:10.1186/s12929-019-0524-y.
Folch J, Olloquequi J, Ettcheto M, et al. The Involvement of Peripheral and Brain Insulin Resistance in Late Onset Alzheimer's Dementia. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;11:236. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2019.00236.
Gudala K, Bansal D, Schifano F, Bhansali A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of dementia: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. J Diabetes Investig. 2013;4(6):640–650. doi:10.1111/jdi.12087.
Cheng G, Huang C, Deng H, Wang H. Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Intern Med J. 2012;42(5):484–491. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.2012.02758.x.
Costello DA, Claret M, Al-Qassab H, et al. Brain deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 disrupts hippocampal synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031124.
Laws SM, Gaskin S, Woodfield A, et al. Insulin resistance is associated with reductions in specific cognitive domains and increases in CSF tau in cognitively normal adults. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):9766. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-09577-4.
Bernstein LH. Brain and Cognition. Available from: https://pharmaceuticalintelligence.com/2015/10/14/brain-and-cognition/.
Shpakov A, Chistyakova O, Derkach K, Bondareva V, autors; Chang RCC, editor. Hormonal signaling systems of the brain in diabetes mellitus. Rijeka (Croatia): Intech Open Access Publisher; 2011. 349-386 pp. doi: 10.5772/28930.
Leszek J, Trypka E, Tarasov VV, Ashraf GM, Aliev G. Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Implication of Alzheimers Disease. Curr Top Med Chem. 2017;17(12):1331–1335. doi:10.2174/1568026617666170103163403.
Xie L, Helmerhorst E, Taddei K, Plewright B, Van Bronswijk W, Martins R. Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptides compete for insulin binding to the insulin receptor. J Neurosci. 2002;22(10):RC221. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-10-j0001.2002.
Pivovarova O, Höhn A, Grune T, Pfeiffer AF, Rudovich N. Insulin-degrading enzyme: new therapeutic target for diabetes and Alzheimer's disease?. Ann Med. 2016;48(8):614–624. doi:10.1080/07853890.2016.1197416.
Abbatecola AM, Rizzo MR, Barbieri M, et al. Postprandial plasma glucose excursions and cognitive functioning in aged type 2 diabetics. Neurology. 2006;67(2):235–240. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000224760.22802.e8.
Wu JH, Haan MN, Liang J, Ghosh D, Gonzalez HM, Herman WH. Impact of antidiabetic medications on physical and cognitive functioning of older Mexican Americans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13(5):369–376. doi:10.1016/s1047-2797(02)00464-7.
Weinstock RS, Teresi JA, Goland R, et al. Glycemic control and health disparities in older ethnically diverse underserved adults with diabetes: five-year results from the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(2):274–279. doi:10.2337/dc10-1346.
Launer LJ, Miller ME, Williamson JD, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): a randomised open-label substudy. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(11):969–977. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70188-0.
Feinkohl I, Aung PP, Keller M, et al. Severe hypoglycemia and cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh type 2 diabetes study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):507–515. doi:10.2337/dc13-1384.
de Galan BE, Zoungas S, Chalmers J, et al. Cognitive function and risks of cardiovascular disease and hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52(11):2328–2336. doi:10.1007/s00125-009-1484-7.
Roostaei T, Nazeri A, Felsky D, et al. Genome-wide interaction study of brain beta-amyloid burden and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(2):287–295. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.35.
Moreno-Gonzalez I, Edwards Iii G, Salvadores N, Shahnawaz M, Diaz-Espinoza R, Soto C. Molecular interaction between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease through cross-seeding of protein misfolding. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(9):1327–1334. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.230.
Staessen JA, Richart T, Birkenhäger WH. Less atherosclerosis and lower blood pressure for a meaningful life perspective with more brain. Hypertension. 2007;49(3):389–400. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000258151.00728.d8.
Lin FC, Chuang YS, Hsieh HM, et al. Early Statin Use and the Progression of Alzheimer Disease: A Total Population-Based Case-Control Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(47):e2143. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002143.
Solas M, Milagro FI, Ramírez MJ, Martínez JA. Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017;37:87–92. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2017.10.005.