DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.15.7.2019.186057

Iodine status of children and women of reproductive age in the Western region of Ukraine

N.V. Pasyechko, O.O. Chukur, T.I. Krytskyy, A.O. Bob

Abstract


Background. In recent years, the incidence of thyroid gland pathology has increased in Ukraine. The absolute number of cases of thyroid diseases in Ukraine over the past 10 years has increased from 689,000 to 1,486,000, according to the prevalence rates, that is 941.6 and 4,210.4 cases per 100,000 of population, respectively. Thyroid pathology with its total frequency in the population (as of 01.01.2018) is 46 % of the total endocrinological morbidity and takes the first place among endocrinopathies. The main cause is imbalance of trace elements and vitamins in the diet against the environmental degradation and technogenic pollution. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the iodine deficiency degree in the population of the Western region of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The iodine supply in the population was assessed among the representative groups: the pregnant women (19–44 years) in the first trimester of pregnancy and the children of school age (12–14 years), residing in the Western region of Ukraine. Assessment of iodine supply was performed using epidemiological indicators: neonatal screening of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in newborns, goitre frequency found by palpation, ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland and the median of the urinary iodine excretion. Results. The frequency of hyperthyrotropinemia was 3.52 ± 0.30 %, which corresponds to a slight degree of iodine deficiency. The results of ultrasonographic examination revealed the goitre frequency in 38 % of children, and in 36 % of pregnant women, which corresponded to the severe degree of iodine deficiency in the region. The results of the median of ioduria in children showed an inadequate iodine content in 20 % of cases, and the urinary iodine concentration was on average 99.69 ± 35.42 μg/l. Lack of iodine in the diet of pregnant women was found in 43.3 % of the examined women (median of ioduria 81.96 ± 42.53 μg/l). The normal iodine concentration was found in 26.7 % of cases, excessed iodine intake with median of ioduria over 230 μg/l was registered in 30 % of women. Conclusions. The estimation of iodine maintenance in the population of the Western region of Ukraine demonstrated a severe degree of iodine deficiency that requires the urgent implementation of a nationwide prevention program.


Keywords


iodine deficiency; thyroid gland; goitre; neonatal screening; median of ioduria; Ukraine

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization (WHO); International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD); UNICEF,. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO Press; 2007. 98 p.

Kravchenko VI. The main stages of the study of iodine deficiency and the dynamics of its elimination in Ukraine. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2006;(3):15-18. (in Ukrainian).

Pankiv VI. Problem of Combined Selenium and Iodine Deficiency in the Development of Thyroid Pathology. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2014;(61):75-80. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.5.61.2014.76859. (in Russian).

Vargas-Uricoechea H, Pinzón-Fernández MV, Bastidas-Sánchez BE, Jojoa-Tobar E, Ramírez-Bejarano LE, Murillo-Palacios J. Iodine Status in the Colombian Population and the Impact of Universal Salt Iodization: A Double-Edged Sword? J Nutr Metab. 2019 Apr 1;2019:6239243. doi: 10.1155/2019/6239243.

Pankiv VI. Level of thyroid-stimulating hormone as basic diagnostic marker and criterion of treatment success of thyroid diseases. Reproductive Endocrinology. 2017;(35):84-88. doi: 10.18370/2309-4117.2017.35.84-88. (in Ukrainian).

Bouga M, Lean MEJ, Combet E. Contemporary challenges to iodine status and nutrition: the role of foods, dietary recommendations, fortification and supplementation. Proc Nutr Soc. 2018 Aug;77(3):302-313. doi: 10.1017/S0029665118000137.

KravchenkoVI, Postol SV. Dynamics of morbidity in pathology of thyroid gland in Ukraine. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2011;(35):10-14. (in Ukrainian).

National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine; Ministry of Health of Ukraine; Коmissarenko VP Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. Osnovni pokaznyky dijal'nosti endokrynologichnoi' sluzhby Ukrai'ny za 2017 rik [The main indicators of the activity of the endocrinology service of Ukraine for 2017]. Kyiv; 2018. 2013-2017 pp. (in Ukrainian).

Chukur OO. Dynamics of morbidity and expansion of pathology of the thyroid gland among adult population of Ukraine. Bulletin of Social Hygiene and Health Care Organization of Ukraine. 2018;(4):19-25. doi: 10.11603 / 1681-2786.2018.4.10020. (in Ukrainian).

Tkachenko VI, Maksymets YaA, Vydyborets NV, Kovalenko OF. Analysis of the prevalence and morbidity of thyroid pathology among the population of Kyiv region and Ukraine for 2007-2017. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(3):272-277. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.14.3.2018.136426. (in Ukrainian).

Andersson M, Karumbunathan V, Zimmermann MB. Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):744-50. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.149393.

Public Health England. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 7 and 8 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2014/2015 to 2015/2016). London; 2018. 29 p.

Kravchenko VI, editor. Ocinjuvannja jododeficytnyh zahvorjuvan' ta monitoryng i'h usunennja : posibnyk dlja kerivnykiv program [Assessment of iodine deficiency diseases and monitoring their elimination: guide for program managers]. 3rd ed. Kyiv: KIS; 2008. 104 p. (in Ukrainian).

Skrypnyk NV, Marusyn OV. Dynamics of incidence and prevalence of thyroid gland nodules in Ukraine and in the Carpathian region for ten years (2006-2016). Praktykujuchyj likar. 2017;6(2):26-29. doi:10.11603/1681-2786.2018.4.10020. (in Ukrainian).

Mamenko MYe. Iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency disorders. Perinatologiya i pediatriya. 2013;(53):97-105. (in Ukrainian).

Kravchenko VI, Medvedev BK. The biological role of iodine and iodine deficiency as pathogenetic factor of thyroid pathology in pregnant women and its prevention. Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2018;14(2):111-118. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.14.2.2018.130552. (in Ukrainian).

Velasco I, Bath S, Rayman M. Iodine as essential nutrient during the first 1000 days of life. Nutrients. 2018 Mar 1;10(3). pii: E290. doi: 10.3390/nu10030290.

Turgut A, Erdogan M, Yurekli BS, et al. Is there any relationship between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and urinary iodine level? Mìžnarodnij endokrinologìčnij žurnal. 2019;15(5):365-370. doi: 10.22141/2224-0721.15.5.2019.180038.

Zimmermann M.B. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb;89(2):668S-72S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26811C.

Andersson M, Hunziker S, Fingerhut R, Zimmermann MB, Herter-Aeberli I. Effectiveness of increased salt iodine concentration on iodine status: trend analysis of cross-sectional national studies in Switzerland. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar 1. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01927-4.

Prabhu SR, Kannan S, Mahadevan S. Iodine deficiency: an under recognized problem. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Jul-Aug;21(4):640-641. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_39_17.

Delange F. Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Dec;10(12A):1571-80; discussion 1581-3. doi: 10.1017/S1368980007360941.

Alexander EK, Pearce EN, BrentGA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-389. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0457.

Corcino CM, Berbara TMBL, Saraiva DA, et al. Variation of iodine status during pregnancy and its associations with thyroid function in women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Public Health Nutr. 2019 May;22(7):1232-1240. doi: 10.1017/S1368980019000399.

Charoenratana C, Leelapat P, Traisrisilp K, Tongsong T. Maternal iodine insufficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 Oct;12(4):680-7. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12211.

Gulaboglu M, Borekci B, Delibas I. Urine iodine levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Sep;136(3):249-57. doi: 10.1007/s12011-009-8539-y.






Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© "Publishing House "Zaslavsky", 1997-2020

 

   Seo анализ сайта