Iodine status of children and women of reproductive age in the Western region of Ukraine
Background. In recent years, the incidence of thyroid gland pathology has increased in Ukraine. The absolute number of cases of thyroid diseases in Ukraine over the past 10 years has increased from 689,000 to 1,486,000, according to the prevalence rates, that is 941.6 and 4,210.4 cases per 100,000 of population, respectively. Thyroid pathology with its total frequency in the population (as of 01.01.2018) is 46 % of the total endocrinological morbidity and takes the first place among endocrinopathies. The main cause is imbalance of trace elements and vitamins in the diet against the environmental degradation and technogenic pollution. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the iodine deficiency degree in the population of the Western region of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The iodine supply in the population was assessed among the representative groups: the pregnant women (19–44 years) in the first trimester of pregnancy and the children of school age (12–14 years), residing in the Western region of Ukraine. Assessment of iodine supply was performed using epidemiological indicators: neonatal screening of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in newborns, goitre frequency found by palpation, ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland and the median of the urinary iodine excretion. Results. The frequency of hyperthyrotropinemia was 3.52 ± 0.30 %, which corresponds to a slight degree of iodine deficiency. The results of ultrasonographic examination revealed the goitre frequency in 38 % of children, and in 36 % of pregnant women, which corresponded to the severe degree of iodine deficiency in the region. The results of the median of ioduria in children showed an inadequate iodine content in 20 % of cases, and the urinary iodine concentration was on average 99.69 ± 35.42 μg/l. Lack of iodine in the diet of pregnant women was found in 43.3 % of the examined women (median of ioduria 81.96 ± 42.53 μg/l). The normal iodine concentration was found in 26.7 % of cases, excessed iodine intake with median of ioduria over 230 μg/l was registered in 30 % of women. Conclusions. The estimation of iodine maintenance in the population of the Western region of Ukraine demonstrated a severe degree of iodine deficiency that requires the urgent implementation of a nationwide prevention program.
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