DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.15.7.2019.186053

Correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus and ankle-brachial index in a geographically specific Greek population without peripheral arterial disease

G. Koufopoulos, K. Pafili, N. Papanas

Abstract


Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains one of the fastest growing and most challenging medical diseases today. The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is the ratio of ankle systolic blood pressure divided by brachial systolic pressure. Generally, ABI has a high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In DM, ABI measurement is recommended by the American Diabetes Association for all subjects > 50 years old. The prevalence of an abnormal ABI is high in type 2 DM. An ABI ≥ 1.3 is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population, as well as with all-cause mortality in DM. The purpose of the study was to assess the potential association of a high ankle-brachial index with diabetes mellitus in a specific Greek population free from peripheral arterial disease. Materials and methods. Between July 2017 and August 2018, people over 30 years old with and without type 2 DM were examined. We included 240 subjects (118 men) with mean age 64.5 ± 14.6 years from Naxos island in Greece who did not have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Of these, 144 had DM and 96 did not. DM duration was 10.6 ± 7.4 years. ABI was measured in all subjects. ABI was measured in the supine position after 5–10 minutes of rest, in normal room temperature (25 °C) after patients had taken off their shoes and socks. Results. We grouped ABI measurements into 4 groups: ABI 0.90–1.29; ABI 1.30–1.39; ABI 1.40–1.49; ABI > 1.50. ABI > 1.30 was seen in 44 % of participants with DM vs. 3.1 % of those without DM. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between diabetes duration and ABI. Among participants with DM, those with ABI > 1.30 had DM duration of 14.2 ± 8.2 years, while those with ABI < 1.30 had DM duration of 8 ± 5 years. ABI was 0.21 (19 %) higher in DM vs. non-DM subjects (1.28 ± 0.20 vs. 1.07 ± 0.11, p < 0.001). Conclusions. A high ABI is more frequent in DM, PAD-free, Greek participants, especially among subjects with long-standing DM.


Keywords


diabetes mellitus; ankle-brachial index; diabetes mellitus; diagnosis; peripheral arterial disease

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References


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