DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0721.15.5.2019.180040

Peculiarities of the antioxidant protection and nitrogen oxide systems of the brain in rats with experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus after carbacetam administration

О.G. Kmet, S.V. Ziablitsev, N.D. Filipets

Abstract


Background. The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the target organs for diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemic damages to the CNS are manifested with progres­sing cognitive disorders and decreased quality of life of patients. An important pathogenic link of DM and its complications is activation of the process of free radical biomolecule oxidation depending on the condition of GABA-ergic regulatory process. The purpose was to study the effect of carbacetam, a new modulator of GABA activity, on the state of the rat brain cortex and hippocampus prooxidant-antioxidant and oxide nitrogen (NO) systems in experimental type 2 DM. Materials and methods. The experiments were conducted on nonlinear laboratory albino male rats with the body weight of 0.18–0.20 kg with type 2 DM simulated by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. Carbacetam was introduced intraperitoneally at the dose of 5 mg/kg during 14 days. The intensity of lipid peroxide oxidation was estimated by the content of products reacting with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Antioxidant protection was evaluated by the activity of supero­xide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The state of NO system was determined by the content of stable metabolites of nitrogen mo­noxide: nitrite-anions (NO2–) and NO-synthase (NOS) activity. Results. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of DM rats, the content of 2-thiobarbituric acid increased, and activity of SOD and catalase decreased. At the same time, NO2– content and NOS acti­vity increased in both structures. After administration of carbacetam, the content of 2-thiobarbituric acid decreased both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and SOD activity increased in DM rats. Though catalase activity increased in the cerebral cortex, in the hippocampus this parameter is characte­rized by a tendency to increase only. NO2– content decreased in both examined structures. NO-synthase activity decreased after carbacetam administration in the hippocampus only. Conclusions. A correcting effect produced on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance and nitrogen oxide system in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats is indicative of the neuroprotective properties of carbacetam in experimental type 2 DM.

Keywords


type 2 diabetes mellitus; nitrogen oxide systems; superoxide dismutase; catalase; carbacetam

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