Endothelial dysfunction in clinical practice: the role of laser Doppler flowmetry (literature review)
This literature review deals with endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is presented in noninfectious diseases of the 21st century and at the same moment is a predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Microcirculation consists of the arterioles, pre- and postcapillary sphincters, capillaries, venules and lymph capillaries. The pathological conditions such as disease and stress are characterized by the presence of the proinflammatory cytokines which cause the cell dysfunction, thrombosis, fibrosis and injury of endothelium. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a comprehensive noninvasive method for primary assessment of microcirculation, detection of endothelial injury, evidence of infusion therapy effectiveness, disease prognosis. The type of circulation (normal, hyperemic, spasm, stasis) and possible etiological factors of endothelial injury are usually defined according to the results of laser Doppler flowmetry and the European guidelines. It is also important to define the possible treatment of endothelial injury (especially influence of infusion therapy) and its role in pre- and postcapillaries functioning as the method of microcirculatory system assessment. Laser Doppler flowmetry has been widely used in cardiology, endocrinology, rheumatology and in surgical practice.
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