Diagnosis and treatment of thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A fragment of 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum

Main Article Content

Yu.V. Buldyhina
L.S. Strafun
H.M. Terekhova
S.L. Shliakhtych
V.I. Pankiv


In 2017, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) published the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases during pregnancy and the postpartum period [1]. This is the first review of similar ATA recommendations, which were first published in 2011. Due to the rapid increase in the number of publications on this topic, at the beginning of the project, recommendations were planned to be reviewed every 4–5 years. ATA President, with the consent of the Board, created working groups of competent specialists in the field of adult and child endocrinology, obstetrics, perinato­logy (maternal and fetal medicine), endocrine surgery, iodine intake and epidemiology. For a wide range of specialization and geographical representation, as well as for providing fresh perspective, about a third of the working group has been replaced for each version/stage of guidelines in accordance with the ATA policy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Buldyhina, Y., L. Strafun, H. Terekhova, S. Shliakhtych, and V. Pankiv. “Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyrotoxicosis During Pregnancy and in the Postpartum Period. A Fragment of 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 15, no. 2, May 2019, pp. 165-77, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.15.2.2019.166111.
Clinical Thyroidology


Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-389. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0457.

Cooper DS, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013 Nov;1(3):238-49. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70086-X.

Bolz M, Körber S, Schober HC. TSH secreting adenoma of pituitary gland (TSHom) - rare cause of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013 Feb;138(8):362-6. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1332921.

Merza Z, White D, Khanem N. Struma ovarii in pregnancy: an uncommon cause of hyperthyroidism. Clin Nucl Med. 2015 Aug;40(8):687-8. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0000000000000821.

Paschke R, Niedziela M, Vaidya B, Persani L, Rapoport B, Leclere J. 2012 European Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of familial and persistent sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor germline mutations. Eur Thyroid J. 2012 Oct;1(3):142-7. doi: 10.1159/000342982.

Goodwin TM, Montoro M, Mestman JH. Transient hyperthyroidism and hyperemesis gravidarum: clinical aspects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Sep;167(3):648-52.

Tan JY, Loh KC, Yeo GS, Chee YC. Transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):683-8.

Niebyl JR. Clinical practice. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Oct 14;363(16):1544-50. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1003896.

Verberg MF, Gillott DJ, Al-Fardan N, Grudzinskas JG. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a literature review. Hum Reprod Update. 2005 Sep-Oct;11(5):527-39. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmi021.

Hershman JM. Human chorionic gonadotropin and the thyroid: hyperemesis gravidarum and trophoblastic tumors. Thyroid. 1999 Jul;9(7):653-7. doi: 10.1089/thy.1999.9.653.

Grun JP, Meuris S, De Nayer P, Glinoer D. The thyrotrophic role of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in the early stages of twin (versus single) pregnancies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997 Jun;46(6):719-25.

Lockwood CM, Grenache DG, Gronowski AM. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations greater than 400,000 IU/L are invariably associated with suppressed serum thyrotropin concentrations. Thyroid. 2009 Aug;19(8):863-8. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0079.

Rodien P, Brémont C, Sanson ML, et al. Familial gestational hyperthyroidism caused by a mutant thyrotropin receptor hypersensitive to human chorionic gonadotropin. N Engl J Med. 1998 Dec 17;339(25):1823-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199812173392505.

Glinoer D, Spencer CA. Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;6(9):526-9. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2010.91.

Lambert-Messerlian G, McClain M, Haddow JE, et al. First- and second trimester thyroid hormone reference data in pregnant women: a FaSTER (First- and Second-Trimester Evaluation of Risk for aneuploidy) Research Consortium study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul;199(1):62.e1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.12.003.

Yoshihara A, Noh JY, Mukasa K, et al. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels and thyroid hormone levels in gestational transient thyrotoxicosis: is the serum hCG level useful for differentiating between active Graves’ disease and GTT? Endocr J. 2015;62(6):557-60. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ14-0596.

Carlé A, Knudsen N, Pedersen IB, et al. Determinants of serum T4 and T3 at the time of diagnosis in nosological types of thyrotoxicosis: a population-based study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Oct 1;169(5):537-45. doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-0533.

Bouillon R, Naesens M, Van Assche FA, et al. Thyroid function in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982 Aug 15;143(8):922-6.

Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-421. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0229.

Laurberg P, Bournaud C, Karmisholt J, Orgiazzi J. Management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: focus on both maternal and foetal thyroid function, and caution against surgical thyroidectomy in pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Jan;160(1):1-8. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0663.

Alexander EK, Larsen PR. High dose of (131)I therapy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;87(3):1073-7. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.3.8333.

Moura-Neto A, Mosci C, Santos AO, et al. Predictive factors of failure in a fixed 15 mCi 131I-iodide therapy for Graves’ disease. Clin Nucl Med. 2012 Jun;37(6):550-4. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0b013e31824851d1.

de Jong JA, Verkooijen HM, Valk GD, Zelissen PM, de Keizer B. High failure rates after (131)I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism patients with large thyroid volumes, high iodine uptake, and high iodine turnover. Clin Nucl Med. 2013 Jun;38(6):401-6. doi: 10.1097/RLU.0b013e3182817c78.

Schneider DF, Sonderman PE, Jones MF, et al. Failure of radioactive iodine in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014 Dec; 21(13): 4174–80. doi: 10.1245/s10434-014-3858-4.

Davis LE, Lucas MJ, Hankins GD, Roark ML, Cunningham FG. Thyrotoxicosis complicating pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Jan;160(1):63-70.

Millar LK, Wing DA, Leung AS, Koonings PP, Montoro MN, Mestman JH. Low birth weight and preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by hyperthyroidism. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Dec;84(6):946-9.

Andersen SL, Olsen J, Laurberg P. Foetal programming by maternal thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 Dec;83(6):751-8. doi: 10.1111/cen.12744.

Mandel SJ, Cooper DS. The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2354-9. doi: 10.1210/jcem.86.6.7573.

Azizi F. The safety and efficacy of antithyroid drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):107-16. doi: 10.1517/14740338.5.1.107.

Nicholas WC, Fischer RG, Stevenson RA, Bass JD. Single daily dose of methimazole compared to every 8 hours propylthiouracil in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. South Med J. 1995 Sep;88(9):973-6.

Kallner G, Vitols S, Ljunggren JG. Comparison of standardized initial doses of two antithyroid drugs in the treatment of Graves’ disease. J Intern Med. 1996 Jun;239(6):525-9.

Nakamura H, Noh JY, Itoh K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Hamada N. Comparison of methimazole and propylthiouracil in patients with hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;92(6):2157-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-2135.

Homsanit M, Sriussadaporn S, Vannasaeng S, Peerapatdit T, Nitiyanant W, Vichayanrat A. Efficacy of single daily dosage of methimazole vs. propylthiouracil in the induction of euthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Mar;54(3):385-90.

He CT, Hsieh AT, Pei D, Hung YJ, Wu LY, Yang TC, et al. Comparison of single daily dose of methimazole and propylthiouracil in the treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Jun;60(6):676-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02032.x.

Nakamura H, Miyauchi A, Miyawaki N, Imagawa J. Analysis of 754 cases of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis over 30 years in Japan. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):4776-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2569.

Watanabe N, Narimatsu H, Noh JY, et al. Antithyroid drug-induced hematopoietic damage: a retrospective cohort study of agranulocytosis and pancytopenia involving 50,385 patients with Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;97(1):E49-53. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2221.

Kobayashi S, Noh JY, Mukasa K, et al. Characteristics of agranulocytosis as an adverse effect of antithyroid drugs in the second or later course of treatment. Thyroid. 2014 May;24(5):796-801. doi: 10.1089/thy.2013.0476.

Rivkees SA, Mattison DR. Propylthiouracil (PTU) hepatoxicity in children and recommendations for discontinuation of use. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2009; 2009: 132041. doi: 10.1155/2009/132041.

Russo MW, Galanko JA, Shrestha R, Fried MW, Watkins P. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure from drug induced liver injury in the United States. Liver Transpl. 2004 Aug;10(8):1018-23. doi: 10.1002/lt.20204.

Bahn RS, Burch HS, Cooper DS, et al. The role of propylthiouracil in the management of Graves’ disease in adults: report of a meeting jointly sponsored by the American Thyroid Association and the Food and Drug Administration. Thyroid. 2009 Jul;19(7):673-4. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0169.

Anderson SL, Olsen J, Laurberg P. Antithyroid drug side effects in the population and in pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr;101(4):1606-14. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-4274.

Clementi M, Di Gianantonio E, Cassina M, Leoncini E, Botto LD, Mastroiacovo P. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and birth defects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;95(11):E337-41. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-0652.

Foulds N, Walpole I, Elmslie F, Mansour S. Carbimazole embryopathy: an emerging phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jan 15;132A(2):130-5. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30418.

Yoshihara A, Noh J, Yamaguchi T, et al. Treatment of Graves’ disease with antithyroid drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital malformation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):2396-403. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2860.

Andersen SL, Olsen J, Wu CS, Laurberg P. Birth defects after early pregnancy use of antithyroid drugs: a Danish nationwide study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov;98(11):4373-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2831.

Andersen SL, Laurberg P. Antithyroid drugs and congenital heart defects: ventricular septal defect is part of the methimazole/carbimazole embryopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;171(5):C1-3. doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0524.

Laurberg P, Andersen SL. Therapy of endocrine disease: antithyroid drug use in early pregnancy and birth defects: time windows of relative safety and high risk? Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Jul;171(1):R13-20. doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0135.

Andersen SL, Olsen J, Wu CS, Laurberg P. Severity of birth defects after propylthiouracil exposure in early pregnancy. Thyroid. 2014 Oct;24(10):1533-40. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0150.

Rubin PC. Current concepts: beta-blockers in pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1981 Nov 26;305(22):1323-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198111263052205.

Sherif IH, Oyan WT, Bosairi S, Carrascal SM. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1991;70(6):461-3.

Nedrebo BG, Holm PI, Uhlving S, et al. Predictors of outcome and comparison of different drug regimens for the prevention of relapse in patients with Graves’ disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Nov;147(5):583-9.

Moore KL, Persaud TVN, Torchia MG. Human birth defects. In: The developing human: Clinically oriented embryology. 9th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2013. 471-501 pp.

Laurberg P, Krejbjerg A, Andersen SL. Relapse following antithyroid drug therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Oct;21(5):415-21. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000088.

Plummer HS. Results of administering iodine to patients having exophthalmic goiter. JAMA. 1923;80:1955.

Means JH. The response to iodine and to antithyroid drugs in Graves’ disease. In: The Thyroid and its Diseases. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Company; 1948. 341-374 pp.

Momotani N, Hisaoka T, Noh J, Ishikawa N, Ito K. Effects of iodine on thyroid status of fetus versus mother in treatment of Graves’ disease complicated by pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Sep;75(3):738-44. doi: 10.1210/jcem.75.3.1517362.

Yoshihara A, Noh JY, Watanabe N, et al. Substituting potassium iodide for methimazole as the treatment for Graves’ disease during the first trimester may reduce the incidence of congenital anomalies: a retrospective study at a single medical institution in Japan. Thyroid. 2015 Oct;25(10):1155-61. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0581.

Connelly KJ, Boston BA, Pearce EN, et al. Congenital hypothyroidism caused by excess prenatal maternal iodine ingestion. J Pediatr. 2012 Oct;161(4):760-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.057.

Chanoine JP, Pardou A, Bourdoux P, Delange F. Withdrawal of iodinated disinfectants at delivery decreases the recall rate at neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Arch Dis Child. 1988 Oct;63(10):1297-8.

Solomon BL, Wartofsky L, Burman KD. Adjunctive cholestyramine therapy for thyrotoxicosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Jan;38(1):39-43.

Mercado M, Mendoza-Zubieta V, Bautista-Osorio R, Espinoza-de los Monteros AL. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with a combination of methimazole and cholestyramine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Sep;81(9):3191-3. doi: 10.1210/jcem.81.9.8784067.

Tsai WC, Pei D, Wang TF, et al. The effect of combination therapy with propylthiouracil and cholestyramine in the treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 May;62(5):521-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02249.x.

Gurung V, Middleton P, Milan SJ, Hague W, Thornton JG. Interventions for treating cholestasis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 24;(6):CD000493. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000493.pub2.

Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;24(1):133-41. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2009.08.009.

Wenzel KW, Lente JR. Similar effects of thionamide drugs and perchlorate on thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease: evidence against an immunosuppressive action of thionamide drugs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jan;58(1):62-9. doi: 10.1210/jcem-58-1-62.

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of perchlorate in food, in particular fruits and vegetables. EFSA Journal. 2014;12(10):3869. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3869.

Lazarus JH. Lithium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;23(6):723-33. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2009.06.002.

Diav-Citrin O, Shechtman S, Tahover E, et al. Pregnancy outcome following in utero exposure to lithium: a prospective, comparative, observational study. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;171(7):785-94. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.12111402.

Donnelly MA, Wood C, Casey B, Hobbins J, Barbour LA. Early severe fetal Graves’ disease in a mother after thyroid ablation and thyroidectomy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 May;125(5):1059-62. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000582.

Momotani N, Noh JY, Ishikawa N, Ito K. Effects of propylthiouracil and methimazole on fetal thyroid status in mothers with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3633-6. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.11.4347.

Patil-Sisodia K, Mestman JH. Graves’ hyperthyroidism and pregnancy: a clinical update. Endocr Pract. 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):118-29. doi: 10.4158/EP09233.RA.

Glinoer D. Thyroid hyperfunction during pregnancy. Thyroid. 1998 Sep;8(9):859-64. doi: 10.1089/thy.1998.8.859.

Momotani N, Noh J, Oyanagi H, Ishikawa N, Ito K. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves’ disease during pregnancy. Optimal regimen for fetal thyroid status. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jul 3;315(1):24-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198607033150104.

Bliddal S, Rasmussen AK, Sundberg K, Brocks V, Feldt-Rasmussen U. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 15;7(7):396-406. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.34.

Amino N, Tanizawa O, Mori H, et al. Aggravation of thyrotoxicosis in early pregnancy and after delivery in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Jul;55(1):108-12. doi: 10.1210/jcem-55-1-108.

Andersen SL, Olsen J, Carle A, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism incidence fluctuates widely in and around pregnancy and is at variance with some other autoimmune diseases: a Danish population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar;100(3):1164-71. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3588.

Hamburger JI. Diagnosis and management of Graves’ disease in рregnancy. Thyroid. 1992;2(3):219-24. doi: 10.1089/thy.1992.2.219.

Laurberg P, Bournaud C, Karmisholt J, Orgiazzi J. Management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: focus on both maternal and foetal thyroid function, and caution against surgical thyroidectomy in pregnancy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Jan;160(1):1-8. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0663.

Rotondi M, Cappelli C, Pirali B, et al. The effect of pregnancy on subsequent relapse from Graves’ disease after a successful course of antithyroid drug therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3985-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-0966.

Nakagawa Y, Mori K, Hoshikawa S, Yamamoto M, Ito S, Yoshida K. Postpartum recurrence of Graves’ hyperthyroidism can be prevented by the continuation of antithyroid drugs during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002 Oct;57(4):467-71.

Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, Clark LF, Bevan JS. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003420. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003420.pub4.

McNab T, Ginsberg J. Use of anti-thyroid drugs in euthyroid pregnant women with previous Graves’ disease. Clin Invest Med. 2005 Jun;28(3):127-31.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy: Committee Opinion No 775. Obstet Gynecol. 2019;133:e285-6.

Kempers MJ, van Tijn DA, van Trotsenburg AS, de Vijlder JJ, Wiedijk BM, Vulsma T. Central congenital hypothyroidism due to gestational hyperthyroidism: detection where prevention failed. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;88(12):5851-7. doi: 10.1210/jc.2003-030665.

Zwaveling-Soonawala N, van Trotsenburg P, Vulsma T. Central hypothyroidism in an infant born to an adequately treated mother with Graves’ disease: an effect of maternally derived thyrotrophin receptor antibodies? Thyroid. 2009 Jun;19(6):661-2. doi: 10.1089/thy.2008.0348.

Luton D, Le Gac I, Vuillard E, et al. Management of Graves’ disease during pregnancy: the key role of fetal thyroid gland monitoring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Nov;90(11):6093-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-2555.

McKenzie JM, Zakarija M. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism due to maternal TSH receptor antibodies. Thyroid. 1992 Summer;2(2):155-9. doi: 10.1089/thy.1992.2.155.

Mitsuda N, Tamaki H, Amino N, Hosono T, Miyai K, Tanizawa O. Risk factors for developmental disorders in infants born to women with Graves’ disease. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Sep;80(3 Pt 1):359-64.

Peleg D, Cada S, Peleg A, Ben-Ami M. The relationship between maternal serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jun;99(6):1040-3.

Laurberg P, Wallin G, Tallstedt L, Abraham-Nordling M, Lundell G, Tørring O. TSH-receptor autoimmunity in Graves’ disease after therapy with anti-thyroid drugs, surgery, or radioiodine: a 5-year prospective randomized study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Jan;158(1):69-75. doi: 10.1530/EJE-07-0450.

Laurberg P, Nygaard B, Glinoer D, Grussendorf M, Orgiazzi J. Guidelines for TSH-receptor antibody measurements in pregnancy: results of an evidence-based symposium organized by the European Thyroid Association. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Dec;139(6):584-6.

Zimmerman D. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism. Thyroid. 1999 Jul;9(7):727-33. doi: 10.1089/thy.1999.9.727.

Abeillon-du Payrat J, Chikh K, Bossard N, et al. Predictive value of maternal second-generation thyroid-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay for neonatal autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Oct;171(4):451-60. doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0254.

Besançon A, Beltrand J, Le Gac I, Luton D, Polak M. Management of neonates born to women with Graves’ disease: a cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Jun;170(6):855-62. doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-0994.

Phoojaroenchanachai M, Sriussadaporn S, Peerapatdit T, et al. Effect of maternal hyperthyroidism during late pregnancy on the risk of neonatal low birth weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Mar;54(3):365-70.

Polak M, Le Gac I, Vuillard E, et al. Fetal and neonatal thyroid function in relation to maternal Graves’ disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;18(2):289-302. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2004.03.009.

Cohen O, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Sivan E, Dolitski M, Lipitz S, Achiron R. Serial in utero ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal thyroid: a new complementary tool in the management of maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 2003 Sep;23(9):740-2. doi: 10.1002/pd.685.

Huel C, Guibourdenche J, Vuillard E, Ouahba J, Piketty M, Oury JF, Luton D. Use of ultrasound to distinguish between fetal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on discovery of a goiter. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Apr;33(4):412-20. doi: 10.1002/uog.6315.

Porreco RP, Bloch CA. Fetal blood sampling in the management of intrauterine thyrotoxicosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;76(3 Pt 2):509-12.

Daffos F, Capella-Pavlovsky M, Forestier F. Fetal blood sampling during pregnancy with use of a needle guided by ultrasound: a study of 606 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Nov 15;153(6):655-60.

Nachum Z, Rakover Y, Weiner E, Shalev E. Graves’ disease in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of a selective invasive treatment protocol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jul;189(1):159-65.

Kilpatrick S. Umbilical blood sampling in women with thyroid disease in pregnancy: is it necessary? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jul;189(1):1-2.

Kahaly GJ. Bioassays for TSH receptor antibodies: quo vadis? Eur Thyroid J. 2015 Mar;4(1):3-5. doi: 10.1159/000375445.

Laurberg P, Pedersen KM, Vestergaard H, Sigurdsson G. High incidence of multinodular toxic goitre in the elderly population in a low iodine intake area vs. high incidence of Graves’ disease in the young in a high iodine intake area: comparative surveys of thyrotoxicosis epidemiology in East-Jutland Denmark and Iceland. J Intern Med. 1991 May;229(5):415-20.

Carlé A, Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, et al. Epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism in Denmark: a population-based study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 May;164(5):801-9. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-1155.

Stagnaro-Green A. Approach to the patient with postpartum thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Meta. 2012 Feb;97(2):334-42. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2576.

Lazarus JH, Parkes AB, Premawardhana LD. Postpartum thyroiditis. Autoimmunity. 2002 May;35(3):169-73.

Stagnaro-Green A. Postpartum thyroiditis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;18(2):303-16. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2004.03.008.

Azizi F. Treatment of post-partum thyrotoxicosis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Mar;29(3):244-7. doi: 10.1007/BF03345547.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 > >>