Effect of metformin therapy on vitamin D level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background. Recent studies have shown that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often have skeletal disorders, in particular, reduced bone mineral density, osteoporosis. Apart from the disease itself, the nature of hypoglycemic therapy can make a significant contribution to increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on the serum vitamin D level in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods. There were 47 patients under observation. The main group (n = 25) included patients who suffered from type 2 DM and received treatment with metformin, a hypoglycemic drug. The control group consisted of apparently healthy persons (n = 22). The study excludes patients with pathology of parathyroid glands, thyroid function disorders, kidney disease, and those taking vitamin D or calcium. Levels of 25hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathormone, ionized calcium, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Results. Fortyseven patients aged 42 to 69 years (average age 58.0 ± 17.5 years) were examined. A study of serum 25(OH)D level showed that in most patients it was low. The average level of 25(OH)D in the main group was 18.37 ± 7.62 ng/ml (5.89–32.8 ng/ml). The study showed a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with type 2 DM (66.7 %) receiving metformin than in the control group (7.69 %). It was found that vitamin D levels were lower in patients with poorer glycemic control of type 2 DM (HbA1c > 7 %) — 15.03 ± 7.60 ng/ml and 22.75 ± 7.62 ng/ml, respectively. Conclusions. The study showed a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with type 2 DM (66.7 %) receiving metformin than in the control group (7.69 %). A reliable inverse correlation was found between the elevated HbA1c level and reduced 25(OH)D content. The level of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the main group of patients receiving metformin therapy compared to the control group.
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