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Background. Joint damage in patients with diabetes mellitus is a common complication and is associated with degenerative dystrophic changes in the periarticular structures. The purpose of our work was to study insulin and leptin hormone levels in patients with diabetic osteoarthritis and to investigate their possible influence on the development of this complication. Materials and methods. Seventyseven patients were examined, they were divided into groups by the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence and severity of diabetic arthropathy. The content of insulin and leptin in the blood serum was determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. Results. Diabetic arthropathy was diagnosed in more than 70 % of patients. In persons with diabetic arthropathy, insulin levels were significantly elevated (for type 1 diabetes mellitus — by 38.5 %, for type 2 diabetes mellitus — by 55.6 %), as well as leptin content (for type 1 diabetes mellitus — by 43.8 %, for type 2 diabetes mellitus — by 53.7 %). There is a direct correlation between the severity of joint damage and the levels of insulin and leptin. The severity of arthropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus directly correlates with insulin resistance. Conclusions. Risk of developing arthropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus with elevated insulin levels is increased by 3.8 times, with elevated leptin content — by 1.3 times, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus — by 2.6 and 1.2 times, respectively. For this sample, it was found that the development of arthropathy does not depend on the type of diabetes mellitus. In women with type 2 diabetes, the risk of developing arthropathy is 6.4time higher than in men. Thus, an increased insulin and leptin levels can be markers of the presence and progression of arthropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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