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Background. The purpose of the study was to carry out a comparative analysis the levels of leptin and ghrelin in the blood plasma of children and adolescents with hypothalamic dysfunction and various forms of obesity. Materials and methods. Thirty nine children aged 10 to 18 years with hypothalamic dysfunction were examined: 16 patients (41.03 %) with visceroabdominal obesity, 23 patients (58.97 %) with gluteofemoral obesity, and 14 healthy children of the same age and gender. History of life, anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist and hip circumference were evaluated in all patients. The level of leptin in the blood was determined by the enzyme immunoassay using the kit of Roche Diagnostics GmbH (Mannheim, Germany). The ghrelin level was determined by the radioimmunological method using the DIAsource ImmunoAssays SA kit (Belgium). Results. Overweight was found in 15 of 39 patients (38.5 %), obesity degree I — in 8 (20.5 %), degree II — in 10 (25.6 %), degree III — in 6 (15.4 %) children. The average leptin level in children with visceroabdominal obesity was 47.20 ± 5.54 ng/ml (body mass index 35.20 ± 5.07 kg/m2) and was significantly higher than in children with gluteofemoral obesity (26.50 ± 7.13 ng/ml, p < 0.05) associated with similar metabolic disorders. The level of ghrelin in obese children was significantly lower than in the control group, and depended on the degree of obesity. With obesity degreee III, the level of ghrelin was lowest — 582.58 ± 59.37 ng/ml. Conclusions. Obesity associated with hypothalamic dysfunction in children and adolescents is accompanied by a low level of ghrelin and a high level of leptin in the blood plasma. Regardless of sex, hyperleptinemia and hypoghrelinemia in children and adolescents are largely associated with the degree and form of obesity. In visceroabdominal obesity (as compared to the gluteofemoral form), a statistically low level of ghrelin and a high level of leptin were recorded.
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