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Background. Recent epidemiological studies revealed a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D levels, insulin resistance (IR), and cardiovascular diseases. However, few interventional studies have evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk, such as IR and arterial stiffness in hypothyroidism. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in patients with hypothyroidism, including metabolic parameters, IR, and arterial stiffness. Materials and methods. We enrolled 55 patients with hypothyroidism who were taking levothyroxine medications. We excluded patients who were taking vitamin D or calcium supplements. Participants were randomized into the vitamin D group (cholecalciferol 4,000 IU/day, n = 30) or the control group (only levothyroxine, n = 25). We compared their IR (homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR)) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity) before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. A total of 55 participants completed the study protocol. At the end of the study period, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were significantly higher in the vitamin D group than in the control group (32.7 ± 7.2 ng/ml vs. 17.1 ± 6.3 ng/ml, p < 0.05). There was no difference in HOMA-IR or changes in arterial stiffness between the groups. Conclusions. Our data suggest that vitamin D supplementation might be effective in terms of elevating 25(OH)D levels. However, we identified no beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk in hypothyroidism, including IR and arterial stiffness.
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