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Background. The microecosystem of human organism closely cooperates with immune and endocrine systems, and in particular the microbiome of the preepithelial biofilm of the large intestine is one of the most sensitive biotopes that is able to change in different diseases. The purpose was to establish the microbiological structure (species composition and population level of microflora) of the preepithelial biofilm of the large intestine in albino rats with experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 25 mature male albino rats weighing 220–240 g, of which 15 animals were included to the control group (intact animals), and 10 rats — to the main group. The experimental thyrotoxicosis was simulated by intragastric administration of mercazolilum for 14 days. Under sterile conditions, laparotomy was performed; a sample (up to 3 cm) of the large intestine with its contents was taken. The washed portion of the intestine was homogenized with a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. A series of tenfold dilutions with 10–2 to 10–7 concentrations of the initial mixture were prepared. From each tube, 0.01 ml were seeded on solid optimal nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. Colonization resistance of the preepithelial biofilm of the large intestine changed in experimental animals when modeling hypothyroidism: the population level of lactobacteria reduced by 51.58 %, bifidobacteria — by 37.35 %, bacteroides — by 22.82 %, peptostreptococci — by 6.5 %. Preepithelial biofilm was contaminated by collibacillus and other enterobacteria (Proteus, Klebsiella), P.niger, staphylococci. The increase was detected in the population level of collibacillus by 10.31 % and clostridia by 8.2 %. Dysbiotic violations of I, II and III degrees were determined that requires a correction by means of probiotics. Conclusions. In the experimental research of mercazoliluminduced hypothyroidism on albino rats, the elimination of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus was established; contamination and colonization of biotope by opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms of Proteus, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Peptococcus were detected on the background of increased population level of collibacillus. There are violations of microbiocenosis in the form of dysbacteriosis degree I–III.
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