Main Article Content
The review of literature considers questions of hypoglycemia as a limiting factor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). Most frequent risk factors of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 DM are: HbA1с level, endogenous insulin deficiency, daily distribution of basal insulin doses, total daily insulin dose, DM duration. For patients with type 2 DM, the main risk factors of hypoglycemia are: HbA1c level, sex, age, DM duration, cerebrovascular diseases, kidney diseases, coronary heat disease, dementia, use of insulin in combination with sulfonylureas, dosages of sulfonylureas, total daily dose of insulin, sleep duration, day of week, intensity of daily physical activity.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
Donnelly LA, Morris AD, Frier BM, et al. Frequency and predictors of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabet Med. 2005;22(6):749-755. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01501.x.
ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2560-72. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802987.
Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802743.
Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberrry CP, Jr, Selby JV. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2009 Apr 15;301(15):1565-72. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.460.
Perantie DC, Lim A, Wu J, et al. Effects of prior hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on cognition in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Apr;9(2):87-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2007.00274.x.
Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B, et al. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and The Endocrine Society. Diabetes Care. 2013 May;36(5):1384-95. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2480.
Husband AC, Crawford S, McCoy LA, Pacaud D. The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 May;11(3):154-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2009.00558.x.
Lane W, Bailey TS, Gerety G, et al. Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: The SWITCH 1 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;318(1):33-44. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7115.
Sako A, Yasunaga H, Matsui H, et al. Hospitalization for Hypoglycemia in Japanese Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study Using a National Inpatient Database, 2008-2012. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Jun;94(25):e1029. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001029.
Languren G, Montiel T, Ramнrez-Lugo L, et al. Recurrent moderate hypoglycemia exacerbates oxidative damage and neuronal death leading to cognitive dysfunction after the hypoglycemic coma. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;271678X17733640. doi: 10.1177/0271678X17733640.
Birkebaek NH, Drivvoll AK, Aakeson K, et al. Incidence of severe hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes in the Nordic countries in the period 2008-2012: association with hemoglobin A1c and treatment modality. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017 May 29;5(1):e000377. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000377.
Hanberger L, Samuelsson U, Holl RW, Fröhlich-Reiterer E, Åkesson K, Hofer S. Type 1 diabetes during adolescence: International comparison between Germany, Austria, and Sweden. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018;19(3):506-511. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12591.
Home P, Calvi-Gries F, Blonde L, Pilorget V, Berlingieri J, Freemantle N. Clinical correlates of hypoglycaemia over 4 years in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin: An analysis from the CREDIT study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Apr;20(4):921-929. doi: 10.1111/dom.13179.
Ikeda Y, Kubo T, Oda E, Abe M, Tokita S. Incidence rate and patient characteristics of severe hypoglycemia in treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Japan – retrospective DPC database analysis. J Diabetes Investig. 2018 Jul;9(4):925-936. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12778.
Boulin M, Diaby V, Tannenbaum C. Preventing Unnecessary Costs of Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in the United States and Canada. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 20;11(9):e0162951. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162951.
Patell R, Nigmatoulline D, Bena J, Kim DG, Messinger-Rapport B, Lansang MC. Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes in skilled nursing facilities. Endocr Pract. 2017;23(4):458-465. doi: 10.4158/EP161502.OR.
Porcellati F, Lin J, Lucidi Pб Bolli GB, Fanelli CG. Impact of patient and treatment characteristics on glycemic control and hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes initiated to insulin glargine or NPH: A post hoc, pooled, patient-level analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(5):e6022. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000006022.
Heller SR, Bergenstal RM, White WB, et al. Relationship of glycated haemoglobin and reported hypoglycaemia to cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome events: The EXAMINE trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;19(5):664-671. doi: 10.1111/dom.12871.
Kim HM, Seong JM, Kim J, et al. Risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia among older Korean people with diabetes mellitus: Interactions between treatment modalities and comorbidities. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(42):e5016. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005016.
Wohland T, Holstein JD, Patzer OM, et al. New risk and protective factors for severe hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(5):407-414. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2016.12.006.
Novodvorsky P, Bernjak A, Chow E, et al. Diurnal Differences in Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias During Spontaneous Hypoglycemia in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(5):655-662. doi: 10.2337/dc16-2177.
Ishtiak-Ahmed K, Carstensen B, Pedersen-Bjergaard U, Jørgensen ME. Incidence Trends and Predictors of Hospitalization for Hypoglycemia in 17,230 Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Danish Register Linkage Cohort Study. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(2):226-232. doi: 10.2337/dc16-0862.
Deeb A, Al Qahtani N, Attia S, Al Suwaidi H, Nagelkerke N. Does Reducing Basal Insulin During Ramadan Fasting by Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Decrease the Risk of Symptomatic Hypoglycemia? Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016;18(9):539-42. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0197.
Anarte MT, Carreira M, Machado A, et al. Identification of risk factors for suffering fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Scand J Psychol. 2014;55(6):554-7. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12158.
Pontiroli AE, Miele L, Morabito A. Metabolic control and risk of hypoglycaemia during the first year of intensive insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14(5):433-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01543.x.
Tharakan G, Behary P, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, et al. Roles of increased glycaemic variability, GLP-1 and glucagon in hypoglycaemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;177(6):455-464. doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0446.
Karter AJ, Warton EM, Lipska KJ, et al. Development and Validation of a Tool to Identify Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Hypoglycemia-Related Emergency Department or Hospital Use. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(10):1461-1470. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.3844.
Wysham C, Bhargava A, Chaykin L, et al. Effect of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine U100 on Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SWITCH 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;318(1):45-56. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.7117.
Henriksen MM, Ferch L, Thorsteinsson B, Pedersen-Bjergaard U. Long-Term Prediction of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes: Is It Really Possible? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016;10(6):1230-1235. doi: 10.1177/1932296816664745.
Calhoun PM, Buckingham BA, Maahs DM, et al. Efficacy of an Overnight Predictive Low-Glucose Suspend System in Relation to Hypoglycemia Risk Factors in Youth and Adults With Type 1 Diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016;10(6):1216-1221. doi: 10.1177/1932296816645119.