Vitamin D as an independent predictor of obesity in adolescents
Background. Today, there is evidence that a low level of vitamin D can be considered as an independent predictor for the formation and progression of obesity. Objective: to study the levels of vitamin D in the blood of children with overweight and obesity. Materials and methods. A group of adolescents (15–18 years) with overweight and obesity was formed from 55 people included in a study group. The comparison group consisted of 20 apparently healthy adolescents of the same age. Methods of examination included anamnesis collection, anthropometry, determination of 25(OH)D content in the blood plasma, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase. The statistical processing of the data was carried out in the Excel 2003 environment for Windows XP. Results. Median 25(OH)D in the control group was 21.67 ng/ml (confidence interval (CI): 16.06–28.85). The content of 25(OH)D was normal in 16 (80 %) persons, in 3 (15 %) patients, the level of 25(OH)D indicated vitamin D insufficiency, and in 1 (5 %) child, vitamin D deficiency was detected. The analysis of 25(OH)D in the group of adolescents with overweight showed its deficiency in 6 persons (26.1 %), insufficiency — in 14 (60.8 %) and normal provision — in 3 (13 %), with a median of 18.29 ng/ml (CI: 16.6–20.1). Median of 25(OH)D in the group of overweight adolescents was 16.15 ng/ml (CI: 12.7–23.8). Normal content of 25(OH)D was determined only in 2 (6.2 %) persons, deficiency was detected in 17 (53.1 %), insufficiency — in 13 patients (40.6 %). Vitamin D deficiency in obese children is associated with dyslipidemia due to reduced low-atherogenic lipid fractions. Analysis of the relationship between serum concentration of 25(OH)D and indices of total calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase did not reveal a significant correlation. Conclusions. Adolescents with obesity and overweight have a decrease in 25(OH)D (deficiency or insufficiency), dyslipidemia due to reduced low-atherogenic and increased high-atherogenic lipid fractions, and the preservation of traditional phosphorus-calcium metabolism indices within the reference values.
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