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Background. Activity of autoimmune processes had a leading role in the development of relapse of hyperthyroidism. Level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies is a basic factor that predetermines the relapse and can be used as a criterion to evaluate its development. A research aim was to study the structural and functional state of the thyroid gland, levels of thyroid peroxidase antibodies and TSH receptor antibodies in patients with postoperative relapse of Graves’ disease during antithyroid therapy. Materials and methods. The group of patients consisted of 25 women aged 23 to 73 years (an average of 53.56 ± 2.31 years). The period from the first surgical treatment to the development of relapse of thyrotoxicosis ranged from 1 to 29 years and averaged 13.33 ± 1.66 years. Results. It was found that the levels of TSH receptor antibodies, which are the main factors in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease, are not decreased on the background of drug treatment that indicates a lack of perspective of conservative therapy for the post-operative relapse of this disease. Conclusions. When the state of medication compensation for thyrotoxicosis is achieved, it is recommended to conduct the therapy with I131 or surgical treatment of the relapse of Graves’ disease.
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