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Background. The purpose was to investigate the levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and magnesium in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) by comparison to the group of healthy persons of corresponding age and sex. Materials and methods. The study included 40 persons divided into three groups: type 1 DM (n = 10, average age 43.0 ± 4.5 years), type 2 DM (n = 10, average age 55.0 ± 5.8 years), and control group of patients without DM of corresponding age and sex (n = 20, average age 53 years). Results. It has been found that the level of vitamin 25(OH)D is significantly lower in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM than in non-diabetics (p < 0.001). The parathyroid hormone content is significantly higher in the group of patients with type 1 DM as compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). The difference between the level of parathyroid hormone in the group of patients with type 2 DM and in the group of people without diabetes is statistically insignificant. Also, in patients with type 2 DM, there is an imbalance of calcium and magnesium with a predisposition to hypercalcemia and hypomagnesaemia as compared to those without diabetes. Conclusions. Vitamin D deficiency is detected in all examined patients with type 1 DM. In patients with type 2 DM, vitamin D deficiency (in 70 %) and insufficiency (in 30 %) was also established. The data obtained regarding the level of these electrolytes require further investigation as to their clinical significance and testing in a larger sample of patients being studied.
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