Evaluating the prevalence and analysis of the main risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus among residents of Aktobe and Aktobe region (Republic of Kazakhstan)

Main Article Content

L.B. Danyarova
S.F. Berkinbaev
G.A. Dzhunusbekova
A.B. Tashmanova
Zh.Zh. Shyman
Ye.V. Karabekova
B.K. Zholdin


Background. In the emergence and progression of chronic non-infectious diseases, risk factors play an important role, which are common to many diseases, and with simultaneous action they potentiate the influence of each other, thereby dramatically increasing the risk of the disease. The most important feature of diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant incidence of cardiovascular complications, a high mortality rate, as well as the cost of treatment for decompensated patients. The urgent and priority task of the healthcare system today is the development and implementation of a modern system for epidemiological monitoring of the main chronic non-infectious diseases, including type 2 DM. The purpose of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation based on the main risk factors for the development of type 2 DM on the basis of a cross-sectional study of the population of Aktobe and Aktobe region of Kazakhstan. Materials and methods. 1515 patients aged 18–69 (mean age 45.9 ± 13.6) years, living in Aktobe and Aktobe region were enrolled in the study. The study was conducted in three stages: interviewing the respondents, physical measurements and laboratory research. Results. The study showed 5.6 % of cases of newly diagnosed type 2 DM in Aktobe and Aktobe region. At the same time, the prevalence of DM among urban dwellers was 6.1 % (n = 45), compared to 4.9 % in the village (n = 28), the prevalence among men was 6.9 % (n = 20), among women — 5.3 % (n = 53). Analysis based on nationality revealed a significant prevalence of DM among people of Russian nationality (17.5 %) compared with Kazakhs (9.2 %, p < 0.01), but comparison of the prevalence of diabetes among Russians with people of other Asian nationality (18.7 %, p > 0.05) and other European nationalities (14.9 %, p > 0.05) did not reveal significant differences. The next non-modifiable factor in the development of type 2 DM is age, and in the age group over 45 years, the risk of developing type 2 DM increases. Among the respondents in Aktobe and Aktobe region, the odds ratio was 1 : 7 (7.114), i.e. in the age group over 45 years, the risk of developing type 2 DM increases by 7 times. When analyzing these questionnaires, it was found that 250 respondents indicated relatives of the first degree of kinship with diabetes, with DM developing in 13.2 % (n = 33). The remaining 1,265 people did not have family history of DM, and the rate of diabetes among them was 9 % (n = 114). The odds ratio was almost 1 : 1.5 (1.535), the difference is statistically significant, p < 0.05. At present, there is no doubt that obesity is the leading etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 DM, and the risk of deve­loping DM increases with the degree of obesity. The study of this parameter revealed that almost 90 % of people with diabetes have overweight or obesity of varying degrees. Analysis of body mass index among those surveyed showed a significant prevalence in all obesity rates in the group of respondents with DM. It is known that DM is one of the leading causes of the increase in morbidity and mortality from diseases of the circulatory system, but on the other hand, cardiovascular diseases are independent risk factors for the development of type 2 DM. According to the results of the study, it was found that people with diabetes in comparison with people without DM suffer from hypertension 5 times more often, from chronic heart failure — more than 6 times, myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure occur more than 6 times more often, arrhythmias of different etiology — 4 times more often, stroke — 2 times. Conclusions. The analysis of risk factors for the development of type 2 DM in the studied population confirmed the influence of such absolute factors as race, age and hereditary predisposition on the prevalence of diabetes. A significant contribution to the development of the disease is also made by such relative or modifiable factors as obesity, glucose and cholesterol levels and concomitant cardiovascular pathology.

Article Details

How to Cite
Danyarova, L., S. Berkinbaev, G. Dzhunusbekova, A. Tashmanova, Z. Shyman, Y. Karabekova, and B. Zholdin. “Evaluating the Prevalence and Analysis of the Main Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Residents of Aktobe and Aktobe Region (Republic of Kazakhstan)”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine), vol. 13, no. 7, Nov. 2017, pp. 515-22, doi:10.22141/2224-0721.13.7.2017.115751.
Clinical Diabetology


Cherniavska IV. Evaluation the possibility of diabetes mellitus in different levels of cardiovascular risk in men. Mezhdunarodnyi Endokrinologicheskii Zhurnal. 2015;5(69):50-56. (in Ukrainian)

Morris NJ, Wang SL, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Keen H. Mortality and causes of death in the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2001 Sep;44 Suppl 2:S14-21. PMID: 11587045.

Ryden L, Standl E, Bartnic M, et al. Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: executive summary. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2007 Jan;28(1):88-136. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl260.

Woodward M, Patel A, Zoungas S, et al. Does glycemic control offer similar benefits among patients with diabetes in different regions of the world? Results from the ADVANCE trial. Diabetes Care. 2011 Dec;34(12):2491-5. doi: 10.2337/dc11-0755.

Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, Kampert JB, Stern MP, Blair SN. Low fasting plasma glucose levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Circulation. 2000 May 2;101(17):2047-52. PMID: 10790345.

Mazzone T, Chait A, Plutsky J. Cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Insights from mechanistic studies. Lancet. 2008 May 24;371(9626):1800-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60768-0.

Meier M, Hummel M. Cardiovascular disease and intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: moving practice toward evidence-based strategies. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:859-71. PMID: 19898642.

Juutilainen A. Gender difference in the impact of type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes Care. 2004 Dec;27(12):2898-904. PMID: 15562204.

Ershow AG. Environmental influences on development of type 2 diabetes and obesity: challenges in personalizing prevention and management. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(4):727-734. doi: 10.1177/193229680900300418.

Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1047-1053. PMID: 15111519.

Fowler MJ. Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 2008;26(2):77-82. doi: 10.2337/diaclin.26.2.77.

Naser KA, Gruber A, Thomson GA. The emerging pandemic of obesity and diabetes: are we doing enough to prevent a disaster? Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60(9):1093-1097. DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01003.x.

Tsai AG, Williamson DF, Glick HA. Direct medical cost of overweight and obesity in the USA: a quantitative systematic review. Obes Rev. 2011 Jan;12(1):50-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00708.x.

Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2006;444(7121):840-846. doi: 10.1038/nature05482.

Most read articles by the same author(s)